Al-Jardani, K. S. (2012). English language curriculum evaluation in Oman. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2, 40-44.
 Asher, J. (2009). Learning another language through actions (7th ed.). Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
 Bacha, N. N., & Bahous, R. (2011). Foreign language education in Lebanon: A context of cultural and curricular complexities. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2, 1320-1328.
 Bashshur, M. (2004). Higher education in the Arab states. Beirut: Unesco Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States.
 Bell, J. (1999). Doing your research project (3rd ed.) Buckinghamshire: Open.
 Block, C. (1993) Teaching the language arts: Expanding thinking through student centered instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
 Bradley, L. H. (1985). Curriculum leadership and development handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Brandt, R. S. (Ed.). (1981). Applied strategies for curriculum evaluation. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
 Brinton, D. M., Snow, M. A., & Wesche, M. B. (1989). Content-based second language instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
 Carter, R. (1991) The national curriculum for English. London: The British Council.
 Cummins, J. (1979). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 121-129.
 Diab R. (2006). University students’ beliefs about learning English and French in Lebanon. System, 34, 80-96.
 Dixon, C. N., & Nessel, D. (l983). Language experience approach to reading (and writing). Hayward, CA: Alemany Press.
 Egbert J. (2006). Learning in context: Situating language teacher learning in CALL. In P. Hubbard,& M. Levy (Eds.), Teacher education in CALL (pp. 167-181). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
 Eisner, E. W. (1979). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. New York: Macmillan.
 Esseili, F. (2011). English in Lebanon: Implications for national identity and language policy. Ed.D. Dissertation, Purdue University.
 Ghaith, G., & Shaaban, K. (1999). The prospects and problems of the new Lebanese English language curriculum. In F. Ayoub (Ed.), The new curricula in Lebanon: Evaluative review (pp. 351-364). Beirut: Lebanese Association for Educational Studies.
 Johnson D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
 Kagan, S. (1992) Cooperative learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for Teachers Inc.
 Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T. D. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. New York: Pergamon Press.
 Kripendorff, K. (1980). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Lebanese Association for Educational Studies (LAES) (2002). The English as a first foreign language curriculum. In Evaluation of the new educational curricula in Lebanon: Assessing objectives, structure, and lesson distribution (pp. 272-307). Beirut: Author.
 Marsh, C. (2004). Key concepts in understanding curriculum (3rd ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.
 Nabhani, M., & Bahous, R. (2010), Lebanese teachers’ views on continuing professional development. Teacher Development, 14, 207224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2010.494502
 Nasr, N. (2001). The use of poetry in TEFL: Literature in the new Lebanese curriculum. CAUCE, Revista de Filologia y su Didactica, 24, 345-363.
 NCERD (1995). New framework for education in Lebanon. Beirut: Author.
 NCERD (1994) Plan for educational reform. Beirut: Author.
 NCERD (1998). The English language curriculum. Beirut: Author.
 Nichols, B., Shidakar, G., & Singer, K. (2006). Managing curriculum and assessment: A practical guide. Ohio: Linworth Books.
 Orr, M. (2011). Learning to teach English as a foreign language in Lebanon. Near and Middle Eastern Journal of Education, 2, 1-14.
 Reid, D. (1999). Investigating teachers’ perceptions of the role of theory in initial teacher training through Q methodology. Mentoring and Tutoring, 7, 241-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1361126990070305
 Saba ‘Ayon, N. (2012). Lebanese English as a foreign language teachers’ conceptions of teaching and their practice in Lebanese public high schools. DPhil Thesis, University of Sussex.
 Shaaban, K. (1997). Bilingual education in Lebanon. In J. Cummins, & D. Carson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of education. Vol. V: Bilingual education (pp. 251-259). The Netherlands: Kluwer Publications.
 Shaaban, K. (2000). Assessment of young learners’ achievement in ESL classes in the Lebanon. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 13, 306317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908310008666606
 Shaaban, K. (2005). English language teaching in Lebanon: Challenges for the future. In G. Braine (Ed.), Teaching English to the world: History, curriculum and practice (pp. 103-113). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Incorporated.
 Shaaban, K., & Ghaith, G. (1997). An integrated approach to foreign language learning in Lebanon. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 10, 200-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07908319709525252
 Shaaban, K., & Ghaith, G. (1999). Lebanon’s language-in-education policies: From bilingualism to trilingualism. Language Problems and Language Planning, 23, 1-16.
 Shaaban, K., & Ghaith, G. M. (2005). The theoretical relevance and efficacy of using cooperative learning in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESL Reporter, 38, 14-28.
 Slavin, R. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
 TESOL (1997). ESL standards for pre-K-12 students. Alexandria, VA: Author.
 Van Ek, J. A. (1991) The threshold level for modern language learning in schools. Malaysia: Longman.
 Weir, C. (1993). Understanding and developing language tests. New York: Prentice Hall.
 Yaghi, R. (2012). Lebanon: A personal journey from professional development to GIS implementation in an English language classroom. In A. J. Milson, A. Demirci, & J. Kerski (Eds.), International perspectives on teaching and learning with GIS in secondary schools (pp. 151-156). New York: Springer.
 Zakharia Z. (2010). Language-in-education policies in contemporary Lebanon: Youth perspectives. In O. Abi-Mershed (Ed.), Trajectories of education in the Arab world: Legacies and challenges (pp. 156184). New York: Routledge.