Sustainable concepts and practices have taken a centre-stage in different fields of studies and professions. This is because human activities continue to threaten the carrying capacity of earth resources as well as life basic needs such as shelter. Ghana, a developing nation, has been characterized with a boom in construction activities. In almost every constructional work, Portland cement remains the main binding agent that is used to bind aggregates together in a monolithic unit. The overdependence of the Ghanaian construction industry on Portland cement has contributed to huge sums of foreign exchange used to import cement ingredients, high cost of buildings and annual artificial shortages of cement which leads to high cost of the product. In this work, alternative binding agent—pozzolana cement, is reported with regards to the theory behind its utilization, laboratory results and practical applications. Results obtained from both the laboratory and the field works have shown that the future binder for the Ghanaian construction industry is pozzolana cement. CSIR-Building and Road Research Institute recommends it for the construction industry for use in various forms of construction such as block making, concrete and mortar works.
Cite this paper
M. Bediako and A. Frimpong, "Alternative Binders for Increased Sustainable Construction in Ghana—A Guide for Building Professionals," Materials Sciences and Applications
, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 20-28. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.412A004
 H. M. Hosseini and S. Kaneko, “Dynamic Sustainability Assessment of Countries at the Macro Level: A Principal Component Analysis,” Ecological Indicators, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2011, pp. 811-823.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.10.007
 N. Arman, J. Zuo, L. Wilson, G. Zilante and S Puller, “Challenges of Responding to Sustainability with Implications for Affordable Housing,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 68, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3034-3041.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.07.007
 M. W. Anderson, M. Tiesl and C. Noblet, “Giving Voice to the Future in Sustainability: Retrospective Assessment to Learn Prospective Stakeholder Engagement,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 84, 2012, pp. 1-6.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.09.002
 J. M. Alwood, J. M. Cullen and R. L. Milford, “Option for Achieving a 50% Cut in Industrial Emissions by 2050,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 44 No. 6, 2010, pp. 1888-1894.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es902909k
 J. Faludi, “Concrete: A Burning Issue, World Changing,” 2004. www.worldchanging.com
 J. G. J. Olivier, G. Janssen-Maenhout and J. A. H. W. Peters, “Report on Trends in Global CO2 Emissions,” European Commission Joint Research, Netherlands, 2012.
 V. M. Malhotra and R. T. Hemmings, “Blended Cement in North America—A Review,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1995, pp. 23-35.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0958-9465(95)95757-Q
 M. A. Coldarone, K. A Gruber and R. G Burg, “High Reactivity Metakaolin: A New Generation Mineral Admixture,” Concrete International, Vol. 16, No. 11, 1994, pp. 37-40.
 M. Singh and M. Garg, “Reactive Pozzolana from India Clays—Their Use in Cement Mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1903-1907.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.12.002
 N. J. Coleman and C. L. Page, “Aspects of the Pore Solution Chemistry Hydrated Cement Pastes Containing MK,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1997, pp. 147-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(96)00184-6
 B. Samet, T. Mnif and M. Chaaboni, “Use of Kaolinitic Clay as a Pozzolanic Material for Cements: Formulation of Blended Cement,” Cement and Concrete Composite, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2007, pp. 741-749.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2007.04.012
 S. Wild, J. M. Khatib and A. Jones, “Relative Strength Pozzolanic Activity and Cement Hydration in Superplasticised MK Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Composite, Vol. 26, No. 10, 1997, pp. 1537-1544.
 E. Atiemo, “Production of Pozzolana from Some Local Clays-Prospects for Application in Housing Construction,” Journal of the Building and Road Research Institute, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 34-37.
 B. B. Sabir, S. Wild and J. Bai, “Metakaolin and Calcined Clays as Pozzolanas for Concrete: A Review,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2001, pp. 441-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(00)00092-5
 R. N. Swamy, “Fly Ash Concrete-Potential without Misuse,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1990, pp. 397-411.
 M. Bediako, “Utilization of Some Ghanaian Mineral Admixtures for Masonry Mortar Formulation,” Unpublished MPhil Thesis, KNUST, Ghana, 2010.