AJPS  Vol.4 No.12 C , December 2013
Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress, Sowing Date and Cultivar in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during 2009/10 and 2010/2011 dry seasons at the Fadama Teaching and Research Farm of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria (latitude 13°01'N; longitude 5°15'E, altitude of 350 m above sea level) to study the effect of water stress, sowing date and cultivar on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water at tillering, flowering, grain filling and control (no stress), four sowing dates (21st November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) and two bread wheat cultivar (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kuaz/Weaver), laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress and date of sowing were assigned to the main-plot, while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed that water stress at tillering significantly reduced spike length and grains per spike. Whereas, water stress at flowering and grain filling significantly reduced 1000-grain weight, grain yield and harvest index. Results also indicated significant (P < 0.05) effect of sowing date on length of spike, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and grain yield. Early sown wheat significantly differed from the late sown wheat in all parameters measured. Yield and yield components decreased with delay in sowing date and it was highest at 21st November and 5th December and lowest at 19th December and 2nd January, therefore wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Variety had significant effect on spike per m-2, grain yield and harvest index. Water stress at flowering and grain filling should be avoided as they are the most critical growth stages in yield determination in wheat, because plants cannot recover, while delay in sowing resulted in reduction in yield and yield components. Star II TR 77173/SLM is therefore recommended for the area.
Cite this paper: M. Sokoto and A. Singh, "Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress, Sowing Date and Cultivar in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 122-130. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A3015.

[1]   D. R. Dewey, “The Genomic Systems of Classification as a Guide to Intergeneric Hybridization with the Perennial Triticeae,” In: J. P. Gustafson, Ed., Gene Manipulation in Plant Improvement, Plenum Press, New York, 1984, pp. 209-279.

[2]   S. Rajaram and H. J. Braun, “Wheat Yield Potential,” In: M. P. Reynolds, J. Pietragalla and H. J. Braun, Eds., International Symposium on Wheat Yield Potential: Challenges to International Wheat Breeding, 2009, pp. 103-107.

[3]   United State Department for Agriculture (USDA)) (Foreign Agricultural Service), “Nigeria Grain: Grain and Feed Annual,” Global Agricultural Information Network, 2010, Grain Report Number N19007.

[4]   Y. Ali, B. A. Manzoor, A. Javed, M. P. Monneveux and L. Zahid, “Genetic Variability, Association and Diversity Studies in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasm,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2008, pp. 2087-2097.

[5]   M. L. Hussain, S. H. Shan, S. Hussain and K. Iqbal, “Growth and Quality Response of Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties to Different Levels of N, P, and K,” International Jounal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2002, pp. 362-364.

[6]   S. J. Zwart and W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, “Review of Measured Crop Water Productivity Values for Irrigated Wheat, Rice, Cotton and Maize,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2004, pp. 115-133.

[7]   S. A. Wajid, “Modeling Growth and Yield of Wheat under Different Sowing Dates, Plant Populations and Irrigation Levels,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arid Agriculture, Pakistan, 2004, p. 320.

[8]   S. A. Ouda, S. M. El-Marsafawy, M. A. El-Kholy and M. S. Gaballah, “Simulating the Effect of Water Stress and Different Sowing Dates on Wheat Production in South Delta,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2005, pp. 268-276.

[9]   A. Sellaries, “Weed Control Research and Demonstration,” In: S. A. Dadari, H. Mani, H. Z. Omenesa and J. A. Y. Shebayan, Third Regional Wheat Workshop Tunis, Tunisia, 2000, p. 203.

[10]   A. Singh, S. Davinder, J. S. Kangand and A. Navneet, “Management Practices to Mitigate the Impact of High Temperature on Wheat,” IIOAB Journal, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2011, pp. 11-22.

[11]   A. M. Mannion, “Future Trends in Agriculture: The Role of Biotechnology,” Outlook on Agriculture, Vol. 27, 1998, pp. 219-224.

[12]   CIMMYT, “World Wheat Overview and Outlook,” 2001.

[13]   H. A. Muhammad and E. I. Eltayeb, “Effect of Sowing Date and Irrigation Interval on Growth and Yield of Wheat and Its Thermal Time Requirements under New Halfa Environment,” 1991, p. 4.

[14]   J. M. Kowal and M. Knabe, “Agro Climatological Atlas of Northern States of Nigeria,” Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria, 1972, p. 36.

[15]   K. S. Davis, “Seasons in the Savanna Zones,” University Press Ibadan, Ibadan, 1982, pp. 80-83.

[16]   SAS, “Statistical Analysis System,” SAS Release 9.1 for Windows, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 2003.

[17]   SERC, “Weather Records for 2010 and 2011,” Sokoto Energy Research Centre, 2011.

[18]   N. N. P. Rao, “Preliminary Results of the Study on AgroClimatology of Sokoto State,” Seminar Paper, University Sokoto, Sokoto, 1983, p. 6.

[19]   E. Acevedo, P. Silva and H. Silva, “Wheat Growth and Physiology,” F.A.O. Corporate Repository, 2009, pp. 1-24.

[20]   A. A. Mirbahar, G. S. Markhand, A. R. Mahar, S. A. Abro and N. A. Kanhar, “Effect of Water Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1303-1310.

[21]   M. Khalid, “Effect of Different Levels of P on Growth, and Yield of Wheat Sown from mid November to Mid December,” M.Sc. (Hons) Agriculture Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 1995, p. 250.

[22]   I. F. Wardlaw, “Temperature Control of Translocation,” In: R. L. Bielske, A. R. Ferguson and M. M. Cresswell, Eds., Mechanism of Regulation of Plant Growth, Royal Society New Zealand, Wellington, 1974, pp. 533-538.

[23]   H. M. Ishag, “Genotype Differences in Heat Stressed Wheat in the Irrigated Gezira Scheme,” In: D. A. Saunders and G. H. Hottel, Eds., Wheat in Heat-Stressed Environments: Irrigated dry areas and Wheat-Rice Farming Systems. Proceedings of the International Conference of Wheat in Hot, Dry Irrigated Environments, Wad Medani, Sudan, 14 February 1993, pp. 170-174.

[24]   Anonymous, “Wheat,” Crop Water Management (CWM), 2009.

[25]   M. Quasim, et al., “Sowing Dates Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Wheat Varieties,” Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2008, pp. 8-15.

[26]   U. Shani and. L. M. Dudley, “Field Studies of Crop Response to Water and Salt Stress,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1522-1528.

[27]   T. R. Wheeler, T. D. Hong, R. H., Ellis, G. R., Batts, J. I. L. Morison and P. Hadley, “The Duration and Rate of Grain Growth and Harvest Index of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Response to Temperature and CO2,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 47, No. 5, 1996, pp. 623-630.

[28]   H. M. Ishag and B. A. Mohamed, “Phasic Development of Spring Wheat and Stability of Yield and Its Components in Hot Environments,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1996, pp. 169-176.

[29]   E. Acevedo, P. Silva, R. Pargas and A. Mujeeb-Kazi, “Trigos Harineros, Trigos Duros y Trigos Sintéticos Hexaploides en Suelos Salinos y no Salinos,” IDESIA (Chile), Vol. 21, No. 2, 2003, pp. 75-88.

[30]   V. Kumar, J. J. Owonubi and A. M. Falaki, “Agronomy of Irrigated Wheat in the Nigerian Savanna,” First National Conference on Wheat Production, Processing and Utilization in Nigeria, State Government Secretariats, International Conference Centre, Maiduguri, 29 January-2 February, 1990, p. 17.

[31]   M. R. Siddique, B. A. Hamid and M. S. Islam, “Drought Stress Effects on Water Relations of Wheat,” Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2000, pp. 35-39.

[32]   K. D. Sharma, R. K. Pannu, P. K. Tyagi, B. D. Chaudhary and D. P. Singh, “Effect of Moisture Stress on Plant Water Relations and Yield of Different Wheat Genotypes,” Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2003, pp. 99-102.

[33]   M. I. Ismail, “Study of Drought Tolerance in Several Durum Wheat Genotypes Subjected to Water Stress at Various Growth Stages,” MsC Thesis, University of Jordan, Amman, 1996, p. 300.