AS  Vol.4 No.12 A , December 2013
Yield and quality of maize following the foliar application of a fertilizer based on the byproduct “shale water”

The water extracted from the shale rock (shale water) through the pyrolysis process to obtain fuel oil and other products shows a composition based on organic compounds and a wide range of minerals and trace elements with an important role in plant nutrition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer. Thus, the influence of foliar application of shale water (SW), with or without the micronutrients zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), boro (B) and molybdenum (Mo), was evaluated regarding yield and quality of maize grains. The yield, the total antioxidant activity, and the content of starch, phenolic compounds and carotenoids were improved in maize grains following the application of three doses of 7 L/ha of SW, which indicates that SW may influence the primary and secondary metabolisms. The application of SW with micronutrients resulted in the increase of grain yield; however, did not result in the improvement of grain quality. The foliar fertilizer formulations also had an influence in the content of minerals and aminoacids of the grain. The results indicate that SW has potential to be used in agriculture to improve yield and quality of maize.

Cite this paper: Silva Messias, R. , Galli, V. , Schirmer, M. , Pillon, C. , Anjos e Silva, S. , Posser Silveira, C. and Rombaldi, C. (2013) Yield and quality of maize following the foliar application of a fertilizer based on the byproduct “shale water”. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 56-65. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.412A006.

[1]   Wang, L., Xua, C., Qua, M. and Zhang, J. (2008) Kernel amino acid composition and protein content of introgression lines from Zea mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize. Journal of Cereal Science, 48, 387-393.

[2]   Kuhnen, S., Lemos, P.M., Campestrini, L.H., Ogliari, J.B., Dias, P.F. and Maraschin, M. (2011) Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of grains of Brazilian maize landraces. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91, 1548-1553.

[3]   Gomez-Galera, S., Rojas, E., Sudhakar, D., Zhu, C., Pelacho, A.M., Capell, T. and Christou, P. (2010) Critical evaluation of strategies for mineral fortification of staple food crops. Transgenic Research, 19, 165-180.

[4]   Messias, R.S, Galli, V., Silva, S.D.A., Schirmer, M.A. and Rombaldi, C.V. (2013) Micronutrient and functional compounds biofortification of maize grains. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, in Press.

[5]   Sosulski, F., Krygier, K. and Hogge, L. (1982) Free, esterified, and insoluble bound phenolic acids. Composition of phenolic acids in cereal and potato flours. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 30, 337-340.

[6]   De Oliveira, G.P.R. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. (2007) Processed and prepared corn products as sources of lutein and zeaxanthin: Compositional variation in the food chain. Journal of Food Science, 72, S079-S085.

[7]   Fraser, P.D. and Bramley, P.M. (2004) The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Progress in Lipid Research, 43, 228-265.

[8]   WHO (2009) Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005, in WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1-55.

[9]   Cakmak, I. (2008) Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil, 302, 1-17.

[10]   Brakemeier, C. (1999) Adubação foliar: A complementação nutricional da macieira. Jornal da Fruta, Lajes, 7.

[11]   Ruiz-García, Y. and Gómez-Plaza, E. (2013) Elicitors: A tool for improving fruit phenolic content. Agriculture, 3, 33-52.

[12]   Messias, R.S., Silveira, C.A.P., Galli, V., Pillon, C.N. and Rombaldi, C.V. (2013) Multimineral and organic composition of a liquid by-product from the pyrobituminous shale pyrolysis process and its potential use in agriculture. Journal of Plant Nutrition, in Press.

[13]   Pereira, S.H.E. and Mello, C.S. (2002). Foliar fertilizer applications on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper and tomato. Horticultura Brasileira, 20, 597-600.

[14]   Hanway, A.L. (1966) How a corn plant develops. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa, 15p. (Special Report, 48).

[15]   Magalhães, P.C. and Durães, F.O.M. (2006) Fisiologia da produção de milho. Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, Circular Técnica, 76.

[16]   Hodge, J.E. and Hofreiter, B.T. (1962) Determination of reducing sugars and carbohydrates. In: Whistler, R.L. and Wolfrom, M.L., Eds., Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Academic Press, New York, 380-394.

[17]   Da Silva, F.C. (2009) Manual de análises químicas de solos, plantas e fertilizantes. 2nd Edition, Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília.

[18]   Arnao, M.B., Canoa, A. and Acosta, M. (2001) The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 73, 239-244.

[19]   Adom, K.K. and Liu, R.H. (2002) Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 6182-6187.

[20]   Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. and Kimura, M. (2004) Harvest-Plus handbook for carotenoid analysis. HarvestPlus Technical Monograph, Washington DC and International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali.

[21]   Vallabhaneni, R. and Wurtzel, E.T. (2009) Timing and biosynthetic potential for carotenoid accumulation in genetically diverse germplasm of maize. Plant Physiology, 150, 562-572.

[22]   Messias, R.S, Galli, V., Silva, S.D.A., Schirmer, M.A. and Pillon, C.N. (2010) Extraction RNA methodologies and semi quantitative gene expression evaluation of maize secondary metabolism (Zea mays L.). Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento: Embrapa Clima Temperado, 117, 1-25.

[23]   Livak, K.J. and Schmittgen, T.D. (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method. Methods, 25, 402-408.

[24]   Abbas, G., Khan, M.Q., Khan, M.J., Tahir, M., Ishaque, M. and Hussain, F. (2011) Nutrient uptake, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by manganese application. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 607-616.

[25]   Kirchmann, H. and Eskilsson, J. (2010) Low manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in cereals explained yield losses after lime application to soil. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 60, 569-572.

[26]   Gordon, B. (2007) Manganese nutrition of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybeans. Better Crops, 91, 12-13.

[27]   Dordas, C. (2009) Foliar application of manganese increases seed yield and improves seed quality of cotton grown on calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32, 160-176.

[28]   Meyer, K.A., Kushi, L.H., Jacob, D.R.J., Slavin, J., Sellers, T.A. and Folsom, A.R. (2000) Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in older women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 921-930.

[29]   Zhu, C., Naqvi, S., Breitenbach, J., Sandmann, G., Cristou, P. and Capell, T. (2008) Combinatorial genetic transformation generates a library of metabolic phenotypes for the carotenoid pathways in maize. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science, 105, 18232-18237.

[30]   Fanning, K.J., Martin, I., Wong, L., Keating, V., Puna, S. and O’Harec, T. (2010) Screening sweetcorn for enhanced zeaxanthin concentration. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 91-96.

[31]   Herms, D.A. and Mattson, W.J. (1992) The dilemma of plants: To grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology, 67, 283-335.

[32]   Glynn, C., Herms, D.A., Orians, C.M., Hansen, R.C. and Larsson, S. (2007) Testing the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis: Dynamic responses of willows to nutrient availability. New Phytologist, 176, 623-634.

[33]   Geneva, M., Stancheva, I., Sichanova, M., Boychinova, M., Georgiev, G. and Dolezal, M. (2008) Improvement of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) seed yield and quality with foliar fertilization and growth effector MD 148/II. General and Applied Plant Physiology, 34, 309-318.

[34]   Miyashita, Y., Dolferus, R., Ismond, K.P. and Good, A.G. (2007) Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. The Plant Journal, 49, 1108-1121.

[35]   Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R. (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59, 206-216.