JWARP  Vol.5 No.12 , December 2013
Health Hazards among Coastal Villagers of Pakistan Due to Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Water
ABSTRACT

Water supply has become insufficient for the rapidly rising population in Pakistan. As in other parts of Pakistan, coastal villagers also become helpless to use ground water for drinking and daily consumption, due to their need and their not knowing about the quality of water. A number of patients arrived to Karachi hospitals, suffering from a strange disease and this study has been done to find the exact cause of this disease by assuming that arsenic contaminated drinking water may be one of the possibilities. Maximum permissible limit (MRL) of arsenic in drinking water of Pakistan has been calculated by analysis of 50 samples of supply water as 0.05 mg/l. It was observed that most of the residents of Ibrahim Hyderi, Rehri, Chashma, Mubarak, Fagheer Muhammad and Gul Hasan Goths (villages) of the coastal belt of the Karachi city were suffering from melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, hyperkeratosis, dorsum, non-pitting oedema, gangrene and skin cancer that might be due to arsenic contamination in drinking water. Studied subjects were seriously affected due to paralyzing lower limbs, arms and other body parts in the coastal belt of Karachi, which was observed to be the most prominent health hazards of arsenic. The majority of victims were children. This community problem demands proper addressing and extensive research for improving the quality of life of these villagers.


Cite this paper
S. Ali, N. Karim, A. Munshi, I. Siddqui and F. Khan, "Health Hazards among Coastal Villagers of Pakistan Due to Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Water," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1235-1241. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512132.
References
[1]   SOE, “Report Compiled by: Freshwater & Toxics Programme, WWF Pakistan. Cover Page Design: Communications Division, WWF Pakistan,” WWF Pakistan, Lahore, 2007.

[2]   WHO, “International Standards for Drinking Water,” 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, 1971.

[3]   S. M. Talebi, M. Abedi and A. Mohammadkhah, “The Relationship between Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals Urban Air,” Pollution Research, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2005, pp. 451-454.

[4]   B. Bennett and M. J. Dudas, “Release of Arsenic and Molybdenum by Reductive Dissolution of Iron Oxides in a Soil with Enriched Levels of Native Arsenic,” Journal of Environmental Engineering & Sciences, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 265-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/s03-028

[5]   Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), “Alarming Levels of Groundwater Arsenic Concentration Has Been Observed during the Course of Water Quality Surveys Conducted by PCRWR during 2001, 2003 and 2004.”

[6]   A. S. Malik, “UNICEF-Pakistan Taking Clean Water and Hygiene Awareness to Rural Pakistan,” 2013.

[7]   A. L. Smith, P. A. Lopipero, M. N. Bates and C. M. Steinmaus, “Arsenic Epidemiology and Drinking Water Standards,” Science, Vol. 296, No. 5576, 2002, pp. 2145-2146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1072896

[8]   WHO, “Prevention. Cancer Control: Knowledge into Action: WHO Guide for Effective Programs; Module 2,” WHO Press, Geneva, 2007.

[9]   WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” Vol. 1, 2nd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1993.

[10]   Pak-SCEA, “Pakistan; Strategic Country Environmental Assessment Report: Rising to the Challenges,” 2006.

[11]   R. T. Nickson, J. M. McArthur, B. Shrestha, T. O. Kyaw-Myint and D. Lowry, “Arsenic and Other Drinking Water Quality Issues, Muzaffargath Pakistan,” Journal of Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 20, 2005, p. 55.

[12]   HACH DR/4000 1997-2003, “Spectropho Tometer Procedures Manual. © HachCompany, USA,”

[13]   WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” 4th Edition, 2011.

[14]   J. H. Gulledge and O. J. T. Connor, “Removal of Arsenic (V) from Water by Adsorption on Aluminum and Ferric Hydroxide,” Journal of American Water Works Association, Vol. 65, No. 8, 1973, pp. 548-552.

[15]   G. Marshall, C. Ferreccio, Y. Yuan, M. N. Bates, C. Steinmaus and S. Selvin, “Fifty-Year Study of Lung and Bladder Cancer Mortality in Chile Related to Arsenic in Drinking Water,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 99, No. 12, 2007, pp. 920-928.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djm004

[16]   G. A. Wasserman, M. X. Liu, F. Parvez, P. Factor-Litvak, H. Ahsan and D. Levy, “Arsenic and Manganese Exposure and Children’s Intellectual Function,” Neurotoxicology, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2006, pp. 450-457.

[17]   Y. Chen, A. van Geen, J. H. Graziano, A. Pfaff, M. Madajewicz and F. Parvez, “Reduction in Urinary Arsenic Levels in Response to Arsenic Mitigation Efforts in Araihazar, Bangladesh,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 6, 2007, pp. 917-923.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9833

[18]   H. Ahsan, Y. Chen, F. Parvez, L. Zablotska, M. Argos and I. Hussain, “Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Risk of Premalignant Skin Lesions in Bangladesh: Baseline Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 163, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1138-1148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwj154

[19]   T. G. Kazi, M. B. Arain, J. A. Baig, M. K. Jamali, H. I. Afridi, N. Jalbani, R. A. Sarfraz, A. Q. Shah and A. Niaz, “The Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water with the Biological Samples of Skin Disorders. Science of the Total Environment,” 2009.

[20]   T. Ahsan, K. Zehra, A. Munshi and S. Ahsan, “Chronic Arsenic Poisoning,” Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-107.

[21]   Y. Chen, J. H. Graziano, F. Parvez, M. Liu, V. Slavkovich and T. Kalra, “Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease in Bangladesh: Prospective Cohort Study,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 362, 2011, p. d2431.

[22]   G. D. N. Mazumdar, D. J. Gupta and A. Santra, “Non-Cancer Effects of Chronic Arsenicosis with Special Reference to Liver Damage,” In: C. O. Abernathy, R. L. Calderon and W. R. Chappell, Eds., Arsenic: Exposure and Health Effects, Chapman & Hall, London, 1997, pp. 112-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5864-0_10

 
 
Top