Drilling techniques commonly used in Africa are rather well suited for areas where geologic formations are hard and groundwater is not located at higher depths. Thus, for a large number of people living in rural areas, access to improved drinking water sources is often limited, due to the high cost of drilled boreholes that is closely linked to geographical, geological and hydrogeological factors. The analysis of various contexts has revealed that, in order to improve access to safe drinking water for underserved communities and populations, it is possible to consider less costly alternative solutions, compared to current options for water supply which are still expensive. In this paper, a simplified drilling technology at a very low cost has been demonstrated: “the manual or hand drilling”, which is a practical solution for less than 40-m deep water points in alluvial terrains or low resistance rock formations. The feasibility study of manual drilling in Senegal has revealed that, even if it is not practical in all geological formations of the country, manual drilling remains an alternative solution for reducing costs and improving accessibility to drinking water in several areas in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Valley, along the northern coast, in Fatick and Casamance coastal zones. This study was used to set up map of areas suitable for manual drilling boreholes; it aims to strengthen the local private sector capacity to meet growing drinking water needs in rural areas.