ABB  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Relation between serum progranulin, inflammatory markers and visceral fat in childhood obesity
ABSTRACT

Aim: To study serum progranulin (PGRN) level in children with obesity and its relationship to inflamamatory markers and visceral fat. Methods: Fifty obese children and 50 controls aged 10-18 years were recruited. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical features were collected according to a standard protocol. Serum progranulin levels, serum IL-6 and hsCRP were measured using ELISA. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) using the following formula: HOMA-IR = fasting insulin (mU/L) × fasting glucose (mmoL/L)/ 22.5. The maximum visceral fat thickness (VFT) and the minimum subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were measured by ultrasonography. Results: In the obese group, a significant increase was found in serum PGRN (48.87 ± 42.33 ng/mL) compared to control group (30.18 ± 23.82 ng/mL). Progranulin correlated significantly with VFT (r = 0.475), IL6 (r = 0.368), Insulin(r = 0.440) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.379). The mean serum progranulin in the high tertile VFT group was significantly higher than those in the low tertile and middle tertile groups (P = 0.030 and P = 0.039 respectively). VFT was highly positively correlated to progranulin, SFT, IL6, insulin, HOMA-IR and hsCRP (P = 0.001, 0.000, 0.001, 0.001, 0.003 and 0.003). However, the correlation coefficient between SFT and progranulin was insignificant. Summary: we demonstrated for the first time that serum PGRN concentrations increased in Egyptian obese children. The concentrations of serum PGRN correlated closely with visceral fat and IL6. Conclusion: PGRN may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in obesity. It could be a novel marker of visceral fat in obesity. Thus PGRN could be a potential therapeutic target for management of chronic inflammation in obesity.


Cite this paper
Ismail, N. , Ragab, S. , Abd El Baky, A. , Hamed, M. and Ayoub, D. (2013) Relation between serum progranulin, inflammatory markers and visceral fat in childhood obesity. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 1030-1038. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.412138.
References
[1]   G Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K. and Flegal, K.M. (2012) Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307, 483-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.40

[2]   Mariusz, S. , Rafal, N.W., Marek, P., et al. (2012) Serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, ghrelin and insulin and their association with obesity indices in obese normo- and hypertensive patients—Pilot study. Archives of Medical Science, 8, 431-436.

[3]   Recio-Rodriguez, J.I., Gomez-Marcos, M.A., Patino-Alonso, M.C., Agudo-Conde, C., Rodriguez-Sanchez, E., Garcia-Ortiz, L. and Vasorisk, G. (2012) Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 12, 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-12-3

[4]   Zúñiga, L.A., Shen, W.J. and Joyce-Shaikh, B., et al. (2010) IL-17regulates adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and obesity. Journal of Immunology, 85, 6947-6959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1001269

[5]   Fain, J.N. (2006) Release of interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily due to the nonfat cells. Vitamins & Hormones, 74, 443-477.

[6]   Blüher, M. (2008) the inflammatory process of adipose tissue. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, 6, 24-31.

[7]   Ye, J.P. (2009) Emerging role of adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and insulin resistance. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 54-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.229

[8]   Daniel, E.D., He, Z. and Bateman, A. (2003) Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Developmental Dynamics, 227, 593-599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.10341

[9]   He, Z. and Bateman, A. (2003) Progranulin (granulinepithelin precursor, PC-cell-derived growth factor, acrogranin) mediates tissue repair and tumorigenesis. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 81, 600-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-003-0474-3

[10]   Guerra, R.R., Kriazhev, L., Hernandez-Blazquez, F.J. and Bateman, A. (2007) Progranulin is a stress-response factor in fibroblasts subjected to hypoxia and acidosis. Growth Factors, 25, 280-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08977190701781222

[11]   Egyptian growth curves (2009) Diabetes endocrine metabolism pediatric unit Cairo university children’s hospital. http://dempuegypt.blogspot.com/

[12]   Ismail, N.A., Ragab, S., Abd El Dayem, S.A., Abd ElBaky, A., et al. (2012) Fetuin-A levels in obesity: Differences in relation to metabolic syndrome and correlation with clinical and laboratory variables. Archives of Medical Science, 8, 826-833.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2012.31616

[13]   Deurenberg, P., Weststrate, J.A. and Seidell, J.C. (1991) Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: Age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. The British Journal of Nutrition, 65, 105-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910073

[14]   Wafaa, M.A., Ragab, R., Ismail, N.A., Yasser, Elhosary, A., et al. (2012) Frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese children and adults: Clinical, sonographic picture and biochemical assessment. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 10, 221-227.

[15]   Kim, S.K., Kim, H.J., Hur, K.Y., et al. (2004) Visceral fat thickness measured by ultrasonography can estimate not only visceral obesity but also risks of cardiovascular and metabolic Diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 593-599.

[16]   Toshiya, M., Ayako, M., Kohtaro, M., et al. (2012) Progranulin is a key adipokine mediating high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity through IL-6 in adipose tissue. Cell Metabolism, 15, 38-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2011.12.002

[17]   Tönjes, A., Fasshauer, M., Kratzsch, J. and Stumvoll, M., Blüher, M. (2010) Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes. PLoS ONE, 5, e13911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013911

[18]   Fujioka, S., Matsuzawa, Y., Tokunaga, K. and Tarui, S. (1987) Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism, 36, 54-59.

[19]   Ribeiro-Filho, F.F., Faria, A.N., Kohlmann Jr., O., et al. (2001) Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension, 38, 713-717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.38.3.713

[20]   Howard, J.K. and Flier, J.S. (2006) Attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by SOCS proteins. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 17, 365-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2006.09.007

[21]   Rotter, V., Nagaev, I. and Smith, U. (2003) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is, like IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-a, overexpressed in human fat cells from insulin-resistant subjects. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 45777-45784.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M301977200

[22]   Blüher, M. (2013) Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity related metabolic diseases. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 27, 163-177.

[23]   Van Harmelen, V., Röhrig, K. and Hauner, H. (2004) Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte. Metabolism, 53, 632-637.

[24]   Gealekman, O., Guseva, N., Hartigan, C., et al. (2011) Depot-specific differences and insufficient subcutaneous adipose tissue angiogenesis in human obesity. Circulation, 123, 186-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.970145

 
 
Top