Bekedam, D.J., Visser, G.H.A., van der Zee, Snijders R.J.M. and Poelmann-Wesjes, G. (1990) Abnormal velocity waveforms of the umbilical arteries in growth-retarded fetuses: Relationship to antepartum late heart rate decelerations and outcome. Early Human Development, 24, 79-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782(90)90008-7
 Neilson, J.P. and Alfrevic, Z. (1996) Doppler ultrasound for fetal assessment in high-risk pregnancies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, Article ID:CD00073.
 Velez, D.R., Fortunato, S.J., Morgan, N., et al. (2008) Patterns of cytokine profile differ with pregnancy outcome and ethnicity. Human Reproduction, 23, 1902-1909.
 Nguku, S.W., Wanyoike-Gichuhi, J. and Aywak, A.A. (2006) Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. East African Medical Journal, 83, 96.
 Biljan, M., Haddad, N., McVey, K., et al. (1992) Efficiency of continuous wave Doppler in screening high risk pregnancies in a district general hospital (a prospective randomized study of 674 singleton pregnancies). Proceedings of 26th British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Manchester, 19 August 1992.
 Burke, G., Stuart, B., Crowley, P., et al. (1992) Does Doppler ultrasound alter the management of high risk pregnancy? Care, concern and cure in perinatal medicine. Parthenon, Carnforth, Amsterdam, 12-15 March 2013.
 Johnstone, F.D., Prescott, R., Hoskins, P., et al. (1993) The effect of introduction of umbilical Doppler recordings to obstetric practice. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 100, 733.
 Tyrell, S.N., Lilford, J., MacDonald, H.N., et al. (1990) Randomised comparison of routine vs. highly selective use of Doppler ultrasound and biophysical scoring to investigate high risk pregnancies. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 97, 909-916.
 Neales, K., Motteram, J. and Maxwell, D. (1994) A randomised controlled trial to assess the use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with intrauterine growth retardation. Personal Communication, 24 January 1994.
 Nienhuis, S.J. (1995) Costs and effects of Doppler ultrasound measurements in suspected intrauterine growth retardation. A randomised clinical trial. MD Thesis, Universitaire pers Maastrich, Maastricht.
 . Hofmeyr, G.J., Pattinson, R., Buckley, D., et al. (1991) Umbilical artery resistance index as a screening test for fetal wellbeing I, Randomised feasibility study. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 76, 359.
 Newnham, J.P., O’Dea, M.R., Reid, K.P., et al. (1991) Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis in high risk pregnancies: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 98, 956-963.
 Almstrom, H., Axelson, O., Cnattingius, S., et al. (1992) Comparison of umbilical artery velocimetry and cardiotocography for surveillance of small-for-gestational age fetuses. A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 340, 936.
 Trudinger, B.J., Cook, C.M., Giles, W.B., et al. (1987) Umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms in high-risk pregnancy: Randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 1, 188190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(87)90003-1
 Pattinson, L., Norman, K. and Odendaal, H.J. (1992) The role of Doppler velocimetry in the management of pregnancies: A randomised controlled trial. Proceedings of 11th Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in South Africa, 59.
 Jimmenez, M.J., Bueno Cavanillas, A., Luna Des Castillo, J.D., et al. (2000) Predictive value of screen for GDM, influence of associated risk factors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 79, 991.
 Giles, W.B., Trudinger, B.J. and Blaird, P. (1985) Fetal umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms and placental resistance: Pathologic correlation. BJOG, 92, 31-38.
 Macara, L., Kingdom, J.C. and Kaufmann, P. (1996) Structural analysis of placental terminal villi from growth-restricted pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms. Placenta, 17, 37.
 Campbell, S. and Thoms, A. (1977) Ultrasound measurement of the foetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 84,165-174.
 Hauth, J.C., Ewell, M.G., Levine, R.J., Esterlitz, J.R., Sibai, B., Curet, L.B., Catalano, P.M. and Morris, C.D. (2000) Pregnancy outcomes in healthy nulliparas who developed hypertension. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95, 24-28.
 Spinillo, A., Montanari, L., Bergante, C., Gaia, G., Chiara, A. and Fazzi, E. (2005) Prognostic value of Umbilical Artery Doppler studies in unselected preterm deliveries. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 105, 613-620.
 Devendra, A., Desai Sadhana, K., Sheth Prem, N. and Prema, K. (2005) Significance of Umbilical Artery Velocimetry in perinatal outcome of growth restricted fetuses. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology of India, 55, 138-143.
 Johnston, F.D., Prescott, R., Hoskins, P., Greer, I.A., McGlew, T. and Compton, M. (1993) The effect of introduction of umbilical Doppler recordings to obstetric practice. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100, 733-741.
 Byun, Y.J., Kim, H., Yang, J., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.Y. and Chang, S.J. (2009) Umbilical Artery Doppler study as a predictive marker of perinatal outcome in preterm small for gestational age infants. Yongei Medical Journal, 50, 39-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2009.50.1.39
 Jouppila, P. Kirkinen, P. (1984) Increased vascular resistance in the descending aorta of the human foetus in hypoxia. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 91, 853-856.
 Franko, K., Gluckman, P., Law, C., Beedle, A. and Morton, S. (2009) Low birth weight and optimal foetal development, In: Kiess, W. Chermausek, S.D. and Hokken-Koelega A.C.S., Eds., Small for Gestational Age, Causes and Consequences, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Basel, Karger.