Entz, M.H., Guilford, R. and Gulden, R. (2001) Crop yield and soil nutrient status on 14 organic farms in the eastern part of the northern Great Plains. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 81, 351-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/P00-089
 Jans, D. (2001) Organic needs assessment: Results of workshops and questionnaires. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Regina.
 Watson, C.A., Atkinson, P. Gosling, P., Jackson, L.R. and Ryans, F.W. (2002) Managing soil fertility in organic farming systems. Soil Use Manage, 18, 239-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/SUM2002131
 Li, Y. and Lu, D. (1991) Effect of fertilization on wheat yield and its quality in wheat-producing region on Weibeirainfed highland. Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas, 2, 1-9.
 Li, S. and Zhao, B. (1991) Proposals for rational fertilization of arid soil in China. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 22, 145-148.
 Laegreid M., Bockman O.C. and Kaarstad O. (1999) Agriculture, fertilizers and the environment. Norsk Hydro ASA, CABI Publishing, Porsgrunn, 113-139.
 Graham, P.H. and Vance, C.P. (2000) Nitrogen fixation in perspective: An overview of research and extension needs. Field Crops Research, 65, 93-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(99)00080-5
 Lai, Q., Li, C. and Huang, Q. (1992) Effect of continuous application of inorganic fertilizer on soil structure properties of paddy soil derived from red soil. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 29, 168-174.
 Doran, J.W., Sarrantonio, M. and Liebig, M.A. (1996) Soil health and sustainability. Advances in Agronomy, 56, 1-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60178-9
 Beauchamp, E.G. (1983) Response of corn to nitrogen in pre-plant and side-dress applications of liquid dairy cattle manure. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 377-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss83-036
 Brinton, W.F. (1985) Nitrogen response of maize to fresh and composted manure. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 3, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01448765.1985.9754456
 Pang, X.P. and Letey, J. (2000) Organic farming: Challenge of timing nitrogen availability to crop nitrogen requirements. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 247-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.641247x
 Schoenau, J.J., Bolton, K. and Panchuk, K. (2000) Managing manure as a fertilizer. SUSMMF1100, Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Regina.
 Qian, P. and Schoenau, J.J. (2000) Use of ion exchange membrane to assess soil N supply to canola as affected by addition of liquid swine manure and urea. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 80, 213-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S99-049
 Qian, P. and Schoenau, J.J. (2002) Availability of nitrogen in solid manure amendments with different C:N ratios. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 82, 219-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S01-018
 Mooleki, S.P., Schoenau, J.J., Charles, J.L. and Wen, G. (2004) Effect of rate, frequency and incorporation of feedlot cattle manure on soil nitrogen availability, crop performance and nitrogen use efficiency in east-central Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84, 199-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S02-045
 Schoenau, J.J. and Assefa, B. (2004) Land application and handling of manure. In: Amrani, M., Ed., Manure Research Findings and Technologies, AAFRD Technical Press, Edmonton, 97-140.
 Swift, M.J. and Woomer, P.L. (1993) Organic matter and sustainability of agricultural systems. Definition and measurement. In: Mulongoy, K. and Merckx, R., Eds., Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1-18.
 Bauer, A. and Black, A.L. (1994) Quantification of the effect of soil organic matter content on soil productivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 185-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800010027x
 Milner, P.D., Silora, L.J., Kaufman, D.D. and Simpson, M.E. (1998) Agricultural uses of biosolids and other recyclable municipal residues. In: Wright, R.J., Kemper, W.D., Milner, P.D., Power, J.F. and Korcack, R.F., Eds., Agricultural Uses of Municipal, Animal and Industrial Byproducts, Conservation Research Report, 44, USDA, Agricultural Research Survey, Washington DC, 9-44.
 Korsaeth, A., Henriksen, T.M. and Bakken, L.R. (2002) Temporal changes in mineralization and immobilization of N during degradation of plant material: Implications for the plant N supply and N losses. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34, 789-799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00008-1
 Yang, S., Li, F., Malhi, S.S. Wang, P., Suo, D. and Wang, J. (2004) Long-term fertilization effects on crop yield and nitrate-N accumulation in soil in northwest China. Agronomy Journal, 96, 1039-1049. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2004.1039
 Akhtar, M., Naeem, A., Akhter, J., Bokhari, S.A. and Ishaque, W. (2011) Improvement in nutrient uptake and yield of wheat by combined use of urea and compost. Soil & Environment, 30, 45-49.
 Harmsen, J., Velthorst, H.J. and Bennehey, I.P.A.M. (1994) Cleaning for residual concentration with an extensive form of land forming. In: Hinchee, R.E., Anderson, D.B., Melting Jr., F.B. and Sayles, G.D., Eds., Applied Boitechnology for Site Remediation, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 84-91.
 Lin, B., Lin, J. and Li, J. (1996) Changes of crop yield and soil fertility by long-term fertilization. Chinese Agriculture Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 26-90.
 Matson, P.A., Naylor, R. and Monasterio, I.O. (1998) Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science, 280, 112-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5360.112
 Yang, S., Malhi, S.S., Song, J.R., Yue, W.Y., Wang, J.G. and Guo, T.W. (2006) Crop yield, N uptake and nitrate-N accumulation in soil as affected by 23 annual applications of fertilizers and manure on in the rainfed region of northwestern China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 76, 81-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10705-006-9042-x
 Hu, Y. and Schmidhalter, U. (2005) Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 541-549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420516
 Ahmad, R., Khalid, A., Arshad, M., Zahir, Z.A. and Naveed, M. (2006) Effect of raw (un-composted) and composted organic waste on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Soil & Environment, 25, 135-142.
 Ahmad, R., Naveed, M., Aslam, M., Zahir, Z.A., Arshad, M. and Jilani, G. (2008) Economizing the use of nitrogen fertilizer in wheat production through enriched compost. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 23, 243-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742170508002299
 Hoyt, P.B. and Leitch, R.H. (1983) Effects of forage legume species on soil moisture, nitrogen, and yield of succeeding barley crops. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 125-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss83-012
 Foster, R.K. (1990) Effect of tillage implement and date of sweetclover incorporation on available soil N and succeeding spring wheat yields. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70, 269-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps90-029
 Townley-Smith, L., Slinkard, A.E., Bailey, L.D., Biederbeck, V.O. and Rice W.A. (1993) Productivity, water use and nitrogen fixation of annual legume green-manure crops in the Dark Brown soil zone of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73, 139-148.
 Brandt, S., Johnson, E., Malhi, S.S., Zentner, R., Thomas, G. and Olfert, O. (2007) Organic cropping in the semi-arid prairies: Opportunities, challenges and progress. In: Proceedings of Plant Canada 2007 Conference, Saskatoon, 80-81. http://www.plantcanada.ca/eng/conference.htm
 Zentner, R.P., Campbell, C.A., Biederbeck, V.O. and Selles, F. (1996) Indianhead black lentil as green manure for wheat rotations in the Brown soil zone. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 76, 417-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps96-074
 Zentner, R.P., Campbell, C.A., Biederbeck, V.O., Selles, F., Lemke, R., Jefferson, P.G. and Gan, Y. (2004) Longterm assessment of management of an annual legume green manure crop for fallow replacement in the brown soil zone. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 84, 11-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/P02-188
 Buhler, R.S. (2005) Influence of management practices on weed communities in organic cereal production systems in Saskatchewan. Master’s Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
 Chae, Y.M. and Tabatabai, M.A. (1986) Mineralization of nitrogen in soils amended with organic manure. Journal of Environmental Quality, 15, 193-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq1986.00472425001500020021x
 Araji, A.A., Abdo, Z.O. and Joyce, P. (2001) Efficient use of animal manure on cropland—Economic analysis. Bioresource Technology, 79, 179-191.
 Fleming, R.A. and Long, J.D. (2002) Measuring cost of restricting access to cropland for manure nutrient management. Agronomy Journal, 94, 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.0057
 Whalen, J.K. and Chang, C. (2002) Phosphorus sorption capacities of calcareous soils receiving cattle manure applications for 25 years. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 1011-1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120003870
 Feinerman, E., Bosch, D. J. and Pease, J.W. (2004) Manure applications and nutrient standards. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86, 14-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00559.x
 Ribaudo, M., Cattaneo, A. and Agopoff, J. (2004) Cost of meeting manure nutrient standards in hog production: The roles of EQIP and fertilizer offsets. Review of Agricultural Economics, 26, 430-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2004.00192.x
 Keplinger, K.O. and Hauck, L.M. (2006) The economics of manure utilization: Model and application. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 31, 414-440.
 Malhi, S.S., Gan, Y. and Raney, J.P. (2007) Yield, seed quality, and sulfur uptake of Brassica oilseed crops in response to sulfur fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 99, 570-577. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2006.0269
 Malhi, S.S., Coulman, B. and Schoenau, J.J. (2009) Maximizing timothy forage yield and quality by balanced nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 101, 1182-1189. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2009.0051
 Noel, R.J. and Hambleton, L.G. (1976) Collaborative study of a semi-automated method for the determination of crude protein in animal feeds. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 59, 134-140.
 Milbury, W.F., Stack, V.T. and Doll, F.L. (1970) Simultaneous determination of total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in activated sludge with the Technicon continuous digestor system. Volume 2 of Advances in Automated Analysis: Technicon (5th) International Congress 1970, New York, 2-4 November 1970, 299-304.
 Varley, J.A. (1966) Automated method for the determination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in plant material. Analyst, 91, 119-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9669100119
 Jones, J.B. (1991) Plant Tissue Analysis in Micronutrients. SSSA, Chapter 13, Micronutrients in Agriculture, 2nd Edition, Questron Technologies Corp., Mississauga.
 SAS Institute Inc. (2004) Online documentation for SAS, version 8. http://support.sas.com/documentation/onlinedoc/index.html
 Kucey, R.M.N. (1983) Phosphate-solubilizing bactera and fungi in various cultivated and virgin Alberta soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 671-678. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss83-068
 Kucey, R.M.N. (1987) Increased phosphorus uptake by wheat and field beans inoculated with a phosphorussolubilizing Penicillium bilaji strain and with vesiculararbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53, 2699-2703.
 Kucey, R.M.N. and Leggett, M.E. (1989) Increased yields and phosphorus uptake by Westar canola (Brassica napus L.) inoculated with a phosphate-solubilizing isolate of Penicillium bilaji. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 69, 425-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss89-042
 Hnatowich, G.L., Gleddie, S.C. and Polonenko, D.R. (1990) Wheat response PB-50 (Penicillium bilaji), a phosphateinoculant. Proceedings of the Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference, Denver, 6-7 March 1990, 235.
 Blackshaw, R.E. (2005) Nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and compost effects on weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Agronomy Journal, 97, 1612-1621. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0155
 Chalk, P.M., Souze, R. de F., Urquiaga, B.J.R. and Boddey, R.M. (2006) The role of arbuscular mychorrhiza in legume sybiotic performance. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 2944-2951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.05.005
 Jeng, A.S., Haraldsen, T.K., Gronlund, R. and Pedersen, P.A. (2009) Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer to cereals and ryegrass. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 76, 183-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10705-005-5170-y
 Rick, T.L., Jones, C.A., Engel, R.E. and Miller, P.R. (2007) Ability of a green manure crop to increase availability of organic phosphorus fertilizers. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, New Orleans, 4-8 November 2007.
 Enwezor, W.O. (1976) The mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus in organic materials of varying C:N and C:P ratios. Plant Soil, 44, 237-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00016972
 Malhi, S.S., Heier, K. and Solberg, E. (2000) Effectiveness of elemental S fertilizers on forage grasses. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80, 105-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/P99-002
 Malhi, S.S., Solberg, E.D. and Nyborg, M. (2005) Influence of formulation of elemental S fertilizer on yield, quality and S uptake of canola seed. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 85, 793-802. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/P04-134
 Nyborg, M., Bentley, C.F. and Hoyt, P.B. (1974) Effect of sulphur deficiency. Sulphur Institute Journal, 10, 14-15.
 Janzen, H. H. and Bettany, J. R. (1984) Sulfur nutrition of rapeseed. I. Influence of fertilizer nitrogen and sulfur rates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48, 100-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800010019x
 Entz, M.H., Bullied, W.J., Foster, D.A., Gulden, R. And Vessey, K. (2001) Extraction of subsoil nitrogen by alfalfa, alfalfa-wheat and perennial grass systems. Agronomy Journal, 93, 495-503. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.933495x
 Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L. and Hanson, J.D. (2002) Root length growth of eight crop species in haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 913-923. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.0913
 Malhi, S.S., Brandt, S.A., Ulrich, D., Lemke, R. and Gill, K.S. (2002) Accumulation and distribution of nitrate-nitrogen and extractable phosphorus in the soils profile under various alternative cropping systems. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25, 2499-2520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120014709
 Takeda, M. (2004) Solubilization of rock phosphate by Penicillium bilaiae: Mechanisms and the feasibility for use in organic crop production. Master’s Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
 Walker, R.L., Wattson, C.A., Rees, R.M. and Stockdale, E.A. (2006) Managing soil fertility in organic farming sytems. Aspects of Applied Biology, 79, 300-315.
 Rick, T.L. (2009) Phosphorus fertility in Northern Great Plains dryland organic cropping systems. Master’s Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman.
 Gleddie, S.C., Schlechte, D. and Turnbull, G. (1993) Effect of inoculation with Penicillium bilaii (Provide®) on phosphate uptake and yield of canola in western Canada. Proceedings of Alberta Soil Science Workshop, Edmonton, February 1993, 155-160.