Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) use in civilian medical transport has its roots in the use of rotor-wing trauma transport in the military setting. Much of the literature and evidence based on the use of HEMS is therefore related to scene and interfacility transport of injured patients. Regionalization of care and increased understanding of time-criticality of various non-trauma conditions has contributed to growing utilization of HEMS for non-trauma conditions over recent decades. It is common for HEMS to be utilized for a variety of non-trauma situations ranging from neonatal and obstetrics transports to cardiac and stroke transports. The purpose of this review is to overview the use of HEMS for non-trauma, focusing on situations in which there is evidence addressing possible HEMS utility.
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