AiM  Vol.3 No.8 A , December 2013
Ultrastructural Analysis of in Vitro Adherence and Production of Acid Proteases by Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto Following Growth in the Presence of Keratinous Substrates from Human Source
ABSTRACT

Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. However, little is known about its potential to cause disease. The aims of the present study were to analyse the production of acid proteinases by clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis in the presence of different keratinous substrates from human sources (stratum corneum, nail and hair) and to verify the capability of yeast cells to adhere and grow as biofilm on these substrates. By scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates adhered to the keratinous substrates. For the isolate recovered from onychomycosis, the cell population attached to stratum corneum and hair keratin consisted mainly of blastoconidia. Differently, on nail keratin, pseudohyphae production was observed. Overall, there was a loose association between yeast cells and keratinous substrates. However, on stratum corneum, flocculent extracellular material was seen evolving cells from the onychomycosis isolate by forming a biofilm-like structure. The isolates recovered from onychomycosis and cutaneous lesion produced higher amount of acid proteinases in medium supplemented with nail keratin and stratum corneum keratin, respectively, than that in salt medium (absence of keratin). Furthermore, no differences were observed in the amount of acid proteinases produced by the isolate recovered from tracheal secretion in the media tested (absence and presence of keratin substrates). The information derived from this study will further our understanding of acid proteinase production by C. parapsilosis isolates and provide an insight into pathogenic mechanisms in C. parapsilosis particularly from isolates recovered from superficial mycoses.


Cite this paper
A. Specian, L. Furlaneto-Maia, C. Andrade and M. Furlaneto, "Ultrastructural Analysis of in Vitro Adherence and Production of Acid Proteases by Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto Following Growth in the Presence of Keratinous Substrates from Human Source," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4236/aim.2013.38A001.
References
[1]   F. M. V. Lunel, J. F. G. M. Méis and A. Voss, “Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Candidemia,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1999, pp. 213-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0732-8893(99)00035-8

[2]   L. Saiman, E. Ludington and J. Dawson, “Risk Factors for Candida Species Colonization of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients,” Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal, Vol. 20, No. 12, 2001, pp. 1119-1124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200112000-00005

[3]   E. C. van Asbeck, K. V. Clemins and D. A. Stevens, “Candida parapsilosis: A Review of Its Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Aspects, Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility,” Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2009, pp. 283-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10408410903213393

[4]   D. Trofa, A. Gácser and J. D. Nosanchuk, “Candida parapsilosis: An Emerging Fungal Pathogen,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2008, pp. 606-625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00013-08

[5]   R. S. N. Brilhante, R. A. Cordeiro, D. J. A. Medrano, M. F. G. Rocha, A. J. Monteiro, C. S. P. Cavalcante, T. E. F. Meireles and J. J. C. Sidrim, “Onychomycosis in Ceará (Northeast Brazil): Epidemiological and Laboratory Aspects,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2005, pp. 131-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762005000200005

[6]   A. C. Oliveira, C. S. Shinobu, R. Longhini, S. L. Franco and T. I. E. Svidzinski, “Antifungal Activity of Propolis Extract against Yeasts Isolated from Onychomycosis Lesions,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 101, No. 5, 2006, pp. 493-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762006000500002

[7]   V. T. Figueiredo, D. A. Santos, M. A. Resende and J. S. Hamdan, “Identification and in Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of 200 Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. Responsible for Fingernail Infections,” Mycopathologia, Vol. 164, No. 1, 2007, pp. 27-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-007-9027-6

[8]   E. A. Martins, L. V. Guerrer, K. C. Cunha, M. M. C. Soares and M. T. G. Almeida, “Onychomycosis: Clinical, Epidemiological and Mycological Study in the Municipality of São José do Rio Preto,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2007, pp. 596-598.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822007000500022

[9]   M. T. Oliveira, A. F. L. Specian, C. G. T. J. Andrade, E. J. G. França, L. Furlaneto-Maia and M. C. Furlaneto, “Interaction of Candida parapsilosis Isolates with Human Hair and Nail Surfaces Revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis,” Micron, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2010, pp. 604-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2010.03.011

[10]   E. J. G. França, L. Furlaneto-Maia, R. M. B. Quesada, D. Favero, M. T. Oliveira and M. C. Furlaneto, “Haemolytic and Proteinase Activities in Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis with Reference to the Isolation Anatomic Site,” Mycoses, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2010, pp. e44-e51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01825.x

[11]   D. Favero, L. Furlaneto-Maia, E. J. G. França, H. P. Góes and M. C. Furlaneto, “Hemolytic Factor Production by Clinical Isolates of Candida Species,” Current Microbiology, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-013-0459-6

[12]   A. Sanchez-Sousa, D. Tarrago, J. Velasco, M. E. Alvarez and F. Baquero, “Adherence to Polystyrene of Clinically Relevant Isolates of Candida Species,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 7, No. 7, 2001, pp. 379-382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1198-743x.2001.00266.x

[13]   A. Gácser, W. Schafer, J. S. Nosanchuk, S. Salomon and J. D. Nosanchuk, “Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Reconstituted Human Tissue Models,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, Vol. 44, No. 12, 2007, pp. 1336-1341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2007.02.002

[14]   S. Silva, M. Henriques, R. Oliveira, J. Azeredo, S. Malic, S. L. Hooper and D. W. Williams, “Characterization of Candida parapsilosis Infection of an in Vitro Reconstituted Human Oral Epithelium,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, Vol. 117, No. 6, 2009, pp. 669-675.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2009.00677.x

[15]   M. C. Furlaneto, J. F. Rota, R. M. B. Quesada, L. Furlaneto-Maia, R. Rodrigues, S. Oda, M. T. Oliveira, R. Serpa and E. J. G. França, “Species Distribution and in Vitro Fluconazole Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary-Care Hospital over a 3-Year Period,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2011, pp. 595-599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822011000500013

[16]   A. Tavanti, A. D. Davidson, N. A. R. Gow, M. C. J. Maiden and F. C. Odds, “Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to Replace Candida parapsilosis Groups II and III,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2005, pp. 284-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.1.284-292.2005

[17]   H. Gradisar, S. Kern and J. Friedrich, “Keratinase of Doratomyces microsporus,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2000, pp. 196-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002530050008

[18]   J. Friedrich, H. Gradisar, D. Mandin and J. P. Chaumont, “Screening Fungi for Synthesis of Keratinolytic Enzymes,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1999, No. 2, pp. 127-130.

[19]   M. A. El-Naghy, M. S. El-Ktatny, E. M. Fadl-Allah and W. W. Nazeer, “Degradation of Chicken Feathers by Chrysosporium georgiae,” Mycopathologia, Vol. 143, No. 2, 1998, pp. 77-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006953910743

[20]   A. L. S. Santos, I. M. Carvalho, B. A. Silva, M. B. Portela, C. S. Alvino and R. M. A. Soares, “Secretion of Serine Peptidases by a Clinical Strain of Candida albicans: Influence of Growth Conditions and Cleavage of Human Serum Proteins and Extracellular Matrix Components,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2006, pp. 209-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2005.00023.x

[21]   R. D. King, J. C. Lee and A. L. Morris, “Adherence of Candida albicans and Other Species to Mucosal Epithelial Cells,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1980, pp. 667-674.

[22]   D. M. Kuhn, J. Chandra, P. K. Mukherjee and M. A. Ghannoum, “Comparison of Biofilms Formed by Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis on Bioprosthetic Surfaces,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2002, pp. 878-888.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.2.878-888.2002

[23]   D. M. Kuhn, P. K. Mukherjee and T. A. Clark, “Candida parapsilosis Characterization in an Outbreak Setting,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1074-1081. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1006.030873

[24]   M. Schaller, C. Borelli, H. C. Korting and B. Hube, “Hydrolytic Enzymes as Virulence Factors of Candida albicans,” Mycoses, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2005, pp. 365-377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2005.01165.x

[25]   M. Monod and Z. M. Borg-von, “Secreted Aspartic Proteases as Virulence Factors of Candida Species,” Biological Chemistry, Vol. 383, No. 7-8, 2002, pp. 10871093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/BC.2002.117

[26]   F. De Bernardis, F. Mondello, R. San Millàn, J. Ponón and A. Cassone, “Biotyping and Virulence Properties of Skin Isolates of Candida parapsilosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 37, No. 11, 1999, pp. 3481-3486.

[27]   M. Dagdeviren, N. Cerikcioglu and M. Karavus, “Acid Proteinase, Phospholipase and Adherence Properties of Candida parapsilosis Strains Isolated from Clinical Specimens of Hospitalized Patients,” Mycoses, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2005, pp. 321-326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2005.01145.x

[28]   A. Tavanti, L. A. M. Hensgens, S. Mogavero, L. Majoros, S. Senesi and M. Campa, “Genotypic and Phenotypic Properties of Candida parapsilosis Sensu Strictu Strains Isolated from Different Geographic Regions and Body Sites,” BMC Microbiology, Vol. 10, 2010, pp. 2-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-10-203

 
 
Top