AJPS  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Screening Test for Antibiotics in Medicinal Plants (STAMP): Using Powdered Plant Materials Instead of Extracts
Abstract: Plants are a rich source of antibiotics, but screening all the existing plant species for biological activity using current methods can be time and resource consuming. The present study is to investigate whether powdered plant materials would perform as well as plant extracts in the screening of plants with antimicrobial activity. In the new method proposed (STAMP), we compared in vitro antimicrobial activity of powdered plant materials from 12 species against bacteria and fungi. We confirmed these results with their corresponding aqueous (wet) and hydro-alcoholic extracts and one species testing the antimicrobial activity of two isolated compounds. Compared with hydro-alcoholic extracts, screening using the powdered plant materials correctly identified the majority of the species with antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (sensitivity 91%, specificity 86%), C. parapsilosis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (sensitivity 64%, specificity 86%). For bacteria, the method performed better in a pH of 9.0. The antimicrobial activity of two compounds isolated from one species (maytenin and netzahualcoyone) confirmed the results. In conclusion, the use of powdered plant materials for screening plants with antimicrobial properties is a cheap, widely available, technically easy, time sparing, reproducible, and sensitive method and can significantly shorten the time and money spent during drug development.
Cite this paper: M. Inácio, F. Carmona, T. Paz, M. Furlan, F. da Silva, B. Bertoni, S. Castro França and A. Soares Pereira, "Screening Test for Antibiotics in Medicinal Plants (STAMP): Using Powdered Plant Materials Instead of Extracts," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 2340-2350. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412290.

[1]   F. Carmona, S. I. Prado, M. F. I. Silva, G. G. Gaspar, F. Bellissimo-Rodrigues, R. Martinez, A. K. Matsuno and A. P. Carlotti, “Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Outbreak in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Report of Successful Interventions for Control and Prevention,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2012, pp. 158-162.

[2]   Y, Miyasaki, W. S. Nichols, M. A. Morgan, J. A. Kwan, M. M. Van Benschoten, P. E. Kittell and W. D. Hardy, “Screening of Herbal Extracts against Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 24, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1202-1206.

[3]   M. W. Harding, L. L. R. Marques, R. J. Howard and M. E. Olson, “Can Filamentous Fungi Form Biofilms?” Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2009, pp. 475-480.

[4]   W. M. Dunne, “Bacterial Adhesion: Seen Any Good Biofilms Lately?” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2002, pp. 155-166.

[5]   A. Coates, Y. Hu, R. Bax and C. Page, “The Future Challenges Facing the Development of New Antimicrobial Drugs,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, Vol. 1, No. 11, 2002, pp. 895-910.

[6]   H. W. Boucher, G. H. Talbot, J. S. Bradley, J. E. Edwards, D. Gilbert, L. B. Rice, M. Scheld, B. Spellberg and J. Bartlett, “Bad Bugs, No Drugs: No ESKAPE! An Update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-12.

[7]   K. W. Martin and E. Ernst, “Herbal Medicines for Treatment of Bacterial Infections: A Review of Controlled Clinical Trials,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 51, No. 2. 2003, pp. 241-246.

[8]   M. R. S. Zaidan, A. Noor Rain, A. R. Badrul, A. Adlin, A. Norazah and I. Zakiah, “In Vitro Screening of Five Local Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity Using Disc Diffusion Method,” Trop Biomed, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2005, pp. 165-170.

[9]   A. J. Paton, N. A. Brummitt, R. Govaerts, K. Harman, S. Hinchcliffe, B. Allkin and E. N. Lughadha, “Towards Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: A Working List of All Known Plant Species—Progress and Prospects,” Taxon, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2008, pp. 602-611.

[10]   J. Corsino, P. R. de Carvalho, M. J. Kato, L. R. Latorre, O. M. Oliveira, A. R. Araujo, V. S Bolzani, S. C. Franca, A. M. S. Pereira and M. Furlan, “Biosynthesis of Friedelane and Quinonemethide Triterpenoids Is Compartmentalized in Maytenus aquifolium and Salacia campestris,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 55, No. 7, 2000, pp. 741-748.

[11]   A. H. Jeller, D. H. S. Silva, L. M. Lião, V. S. Bolzani and M. Furlan, “Antioxidant Phenolic and Quinonemethide Triterpenes from Cheiloclinium cognatum,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 65, No. 13, 2004, pp. 1977-1982.

[12]   O. Ngassapa, D. D. Soejarto, J. M. Pezzuto and N. R. Farnsworth, “Quinone-Methide Triterpenes and Salaspermic Acid from Kokoona ochracea,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-8.

[13]   M. Carels and D. Shepherd, “The Effect of pH and Amino Acids on Conidiation and Pigment Production of Monascus major ATCC 16362 and Monascus rubiginosus ATCC 16367 in Submerged Shaken Culture,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 24, No. 11, 1978, pp. 1346-1357.

[14]   A. Scalbertn and G. Williamson, “Dietary Intake and Bioavailability of Polyphenols,” Journal of Nutrition, Vo. 130, Suppl. 8S, 2000, pp. 2073-2085.

[15]   T. Akase, T. Shimada, Y. Harasawa, Y. Ikeya, E. Nagai, S. Iizuka, G. Nakagami, S. Iizaka, H. Sanada and M. Aburada, “Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2011, No. 484590, 2011, pp. 1-10.

[16]   S. M. Oramas-Royo, H. Chavez, P. Martin-Rodiguez, L. Fernand Ez-Perez, A. G. Ravelo and A. Estevez-Braun, “Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from Maytenus retusa,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 73, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2029-2034.

[17]   H. Elhag, J. S. Mossa and M. M. El-Olemy, “Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of the Extracts of Khat Callus Cultures,” In: J. Janick, Ed., Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria, 1999, pp. 463-466.

[18]   F. P. Gullo, J. C. Sardi, V. A. Santos, F. Sangalli-Leite, N. S. Pitangui, S. A. Rossi, E. S. A. C. de Paula, L. A. Soares, J. F. Silva, H. C. Oliveira, M. Furlan, D. H. Silva, V. S. Bolzani, M. J. Mendes-Giannini and A. M. Fusco-Almeida, “Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2012, 2012, pp. 1-6.

[19]   L. Moujir, A. M. Gutierrez-Navarro, A. G. Gonzalez, A. G. Ravelo and J. G. Luis, “Mode of Action of Netzahualcoyone,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1991, pp. 211-213.

[20]   I, Raskin and C. Ripoll, “Can an Apple a Day Keep the Doctor Away?” Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol. 10, No. 24, 2004, pp. 3419-3429.

[21]   B. Schmidt, D. Ribnicky, A. Poulev, S. Logendra, W. Cefalu and I. Raskin, “A Natural History of Botanical Therapeutics,” Metabolism, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2008, pp. S3-S9.

[22]   E. M. Williamson, “Synergy and Other Interactions in Phytomedicines,” Phytomedicine, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2001, pp. 401-409.

[23]   J. W. Li and J. C. Vederas, “Drug Discovery and Natural Products: End of an Era or an Endless Frontier?” Science, Vol. 325, No. 5937, 2009, pp. 161-165.