AJPS  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii
Abstract: Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significantly reduced in all plants treated with both aqueous seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium. In C. ciliaris, the total chlorophyll content was also significantly reduced for those plants treated with aqueous seed extract and leaf extract from D. stramonium. Relative to the control treatments, there was greater reduction in root and shoot length which was observed in higher concentrations of aqueous seed and leaf extracts. Fresh and dry weight of tested species significantly decreased after being treated with both seed and leaf aqueous extracts of D. stramonium. It was found that the allelopathic effect of aqueous seed and leaf extracts from D. stramonium on tested species was concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effects on all tested species increased as the concentration of both extracts increased from 0% to 100%. This study concluded that aqueous seed and leaf extract of D. stramonium have allelopathic effects on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of grass (C. ciliaris) and legume (N. wightii) species.
Cite this paper: F. Elisante, M. Tarimo and P. Ndakidemi, "Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 2332-2339. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412289.

[1]   E. L. Rice, “Allelopathy,” 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London, 1984.

[2]   Z. S. Siddiqui and A. U. Zaman, “Effects of Capsicum Leachates on Germination, Seedling Growth and Chlorophyll Accumulation in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek Seedlings,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2005, pp. 941-947.

[3]   L. Ma, H. Wu, R. Bai, L. Zhou, X. Yuan and D. Hou, “Phytotoxic Effects of Stellera chamaejasme L. Root Extract,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1170-1176.

[4]   P. A. Singh and B. R. Chaudhary, “Allelopathic Potential of Algae Weed Pithophora Oedogonia (Mont.) Ittrock on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Oryza sativa L.,” Botany Research International, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011, pp. 36-40.

[5]   J. H. J. R. Makoi and P. A. Ndakidemi, “Allelopathy as Protectant, Defence and Growth Stimulants in Legume Cereal Mixed Culture Systems,” New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2012, pp. 161-186.

[6]   J. Q. Yu, S. F. Ye, M. F. Zhang and W. H. Hu, “Effects of Root Exudates and Aqueous Root Extracts of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Allelochemicals, on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzymes in Cucumber,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2003, pp. 129-139.

[7]   J. J. Ferguson, B. Rathinasabapathi and C. A. Chase, “Allelopathy: How Plants Suppress Other Plants,” The Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 2003.

[8]   Inderjit, L. A. Weston and O. S. Duke, “Challenges, Achievements and Opportunities in Allelopathy Research,” Journal of Plant Interaction, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2005, pp. 69-81.

[9]   S. P. Ghafarbi, S. Hassannejad and R. Lotfi, “Allelopathic Effects of Wheat Seed Extracts on Seed and Seedling Growth of Eight Selected Weed Species,” International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 19, 2012, pp. 1452-1457.

[10]   A. Gniazdowska and R. Bogatek, “Allelopathic Interactions between Plants. Multi Site Action of Allelochemicals,” Journal of Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2005, pp. 395-407.

[11]   C. E. Stein and E. S. Braga, “Chlorophyll a in Macro-Vegetable as an Indicator of the Environmental Impacts in the Cananeia-Iguage Estuarine-Lagoon System—SP, Brazil,” Safety, Health and Environment World Congress, São Paulo, 2010.

[12]   M. R. Schlemmer, D. D. Francis, J. F. Shanahan and J. S. Schepers, “Remotely Measuring Chlorophyll Content in Corn Leaves with Differing Nitrogen Levels and Relative Water Content,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 97, No. 1, 2005, pp. 106-112.

[13]   C. Wu, Z. Niu, Q. Tang and W. Huang, “Estimating Chlorophyll Content from Hyperspectral Vegetation Indices: Modeling and Validation, “Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 148, No. 8-9, 2008, pp. 1230-1241.

[14]   S. L. Peng, J. Wen and Q. F. Guo, “Mechanism and Active Variety of Allelochemicals,” Acta Botanica Sinica, Vol. 46, No. 7, 2004, pp. 757-766.

[15]   R. O. Oyerinde, O. O. Otusanya and O. B. Akpor, “Allelopathic Effect of Tithonia diversifolia on the Germination, Growth and Chlorophyll Contents of Maize (Zea mays L.),” Scientific Research and Essay, Vol. 4, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1553-1558.

[16]   L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, “Plant Physiology,” 3rd Edition, Senauer Association, Sunderland, 2002, p. 690.

[17]   M. An, J. E. Pratley and T. Haig, “Allelopathy: From Concept to Reality,” Report on 9th Australian Agronomy Conference (AAC), Wagga Wagga, 1998.

[18]   S. Maharjan, B. B. Shrestha and P. K. Jha, “Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Some Cultivated and Wild Herbaceous Species,” Scientific World, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2007, pp. 33-39.

[19]   B. A. Gholami, M. Faravani and M. T. Kashki, “Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract from Artemisia Kopetdaghensis and Satureja Hortensison Growth and Seed Germination of Weeds,” Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 9, 2011, pp. 283-290.

[20]   I. M. Hussain and M. J. Reigosa, “Allelochemical Stress Inhibits Growth, Leaf Water Relations, PSII Photochemistry, Non-Photochemical Fluorescence Quenching, and Heat Energy Dissipation in Three C3 Perennial Species,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 62, No. 13, 2011, pp. 4533-4545.

[21]   I. Shonle and J. Bergelson, “Evolutionary Ecology of the Tropane Alkaloids of Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae),” Evolution, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2000, pp. 778-788.

[22]   J. Alexander, B. Diane, C. Andrew, C. Jean-Pierre, D. Eugenia, D. Alessandro, M. L. Férnandez-Cruz, P. Fürst, J. Fink-Gremmels, L. G. Corrado, G. Philippe, G. Jadwiga, H. Gerhard, J. Niklas, M. Antonio, J. Schlatter, R. Van Leeuwen, C. Van Peteghem and V. Philippe, “Tropane Alkaloids (from Datura sp.) as Undesirable Substances in Animal Feed: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain,” The European Food Safety Authority Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2008, pp. 2-55.

[23]   O. A. Oseni, C. O. Olarinoye and I. A. Amoo, “Studies on Chemical Compositions and Functional Properties of Thorn Apple (Datura stramonium L.) Solanaceae,” African Journal of Food Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011, pp. 40-44.

[24]   M. Butnariu, “An Analysis of Sorghum halepense’s Behavior in Presence of Tropane Alkaloids from Datura stramonium Extracts,” Chemistry Central Journal, Vol. 6, 2012, p. 75.

[25]   J. D. Hiscox and G. F. Israelstam, “A Method for the Extraction of Chlorophyll from Leaf Tissue without Maceration,” Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 57, No. 12, 1979, pp. 1332-1334.

[26]   D. I. Arnon, “Copper Enzymes in Isolated Chloroplasts, Polyphenoloxidase in Beta Vulgaris,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1949, pp. 1-15.

[27]   C. Yang, C. Lee and C. Chou, “Effects of Three Allelopathic Phenolics on Chlorophyll Accumulation of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seedlings: I. Inhibition of Supply-Orientation,” Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2002, pp. 299-304.

[28]   E. Stupnicka-Rodzynkiewicz, T. Dabkowska, A. Stoklosa, T. Hura, F. Dubert and A. Lepiarczyk, “The Effect of Selected Phenolic Compounds on the Initial Growth of Four Weed Species,” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Vol. 120, No. XX, 2006, pp. 479-486.

[29]   S. Arowosegbe and A. J. Afolayan, “Assessment of Allelopathic Properties of Aloe Ferox Mill. on Turnip, Beetroot and Carrot,” Biological Research, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2012, pp. 363-368.

[30]   Z. Y. Ashrafi, S. Sadeghi, H. R. Mashhadi and M. A. Hassan, “Allelopathic Effects of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) on Germination and Growth of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum),” Journal of Agricultural Technology, Vol. 4, 2008, pp. 219-229.

[31]   J. R. Quasem, “The Allelopathic Effect of Three Amaranthus spp. (Pigweeds) on Wheat (Triticum durum),” Weed Research, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1995, pp. 41-49.

[32]   U. K. Sahoo, L. Jeeceelee, K. Vanlalhriatpuia, K. Upadhyaya and J. H. Lalremruati, “Allellopathic Effects of Leaf Leachate of Mangifera indica L. on Initial Growth Parameters of Few Home Garden Food Crops,” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 10, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1438-1447.

[33]   R. Choyal and S. K. Sharma, “Evaluation of Allelopathic Effects of Lantana camara (Linn) on Regeneration of Pogonatum aloides in Culture Media,” Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2011, pp. 41-48.