Medicinal plants have been presented as a valuable source of preservation of human health. In special, Stryphnodendron barbatiman has been employed due to its antimicrobial activity. This plant is rich in tannins and has been used in popular medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder, treatment of lesions, and also as anti-inflammatory microbicide. Citrobacter freundii is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is one of the major causes of opportunistic infections. This microorganism is a bacterium (bacillus) aerobic gram-negative with a length in the range of 1 to 5 mm. C. freundii is commonly found in water, soil, food and occasionally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. In this paper, we have demonstrated the antibacterial activity of S. barbatiman by observing cellular death by using inhibition halo approach. Atomic force microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results suggested that interaction between the main active components of S. barbatiman with cellular wall of C. freundii gives rise to cellular wall damage, and then leads this microorganism to death.
Cite this paper
N. Souza, M. Gomes, R. Maciel, R. Silva, T. Trescher, F. Gorza, G. Pedro, K. Correa, M. Souza and J. Silva, "Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Stryphnodendron barbatiman
against Citrobacter freundii
," Materials Sciences and Applications
, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 780-785. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.412099
 K. Ishida, S. Rozental, J. C. P. De Mello and C. V. Nakamura, “Activity of tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringenson on Cryptococcus neoformans: Effects on Growth, Capsule Size and Pigmentation,” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Vol. 8, 2009, pp. 1-10.
 D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, “Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry,” 4th Edition, 2004. http://bcs.whfreeman.com/lehninger/default.asp
 D. Voet and J. G. Voet, “Biochemistry,” 4th Edition, 2011. http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-HEP001782,descCd-INSTRUCTOR.html
 Y. Cong, J. Wang, Z. Chen, K. Xiong, Q. Xu and F. Hu, “Characterization of Swarming Motility in Citrobacter freundii,” PFEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 317, No. 2, 2011, pp. 160-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02225.x
 A. Kumar, H. Shaaban, K. Koduru, S. Abo, I. Sidhom and G. Guron, “Citrobacter freundii-Induced Cold Agglutinin Hemolysisi,” Annals of Hematology, Vol. 90, No. 7, 2011, pp. 855-856. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-010-1096-9
 J. G. Whalen, T. W. Mully and J. C. English, “Spontaneous Citrobacter freundii Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient,” Archives of Dermatology, Vol. 143, No. 1, 2007, pp. 124-125.
 S. B. Ferreira, J. D. Palmeira, J. H. Souza, J. M. Almeida, M. C. P. Figueiredo, A. S. Pequeno, T. A. Arruda, R. M. P. Antunes and R. M. R. Catao, “Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity in Vitro of the Hydroalcoholic Extract Stryphnodendron adstringens against of Staphylococcus aureus Strains,” RevistaBrasileira de AnálisesClínicas, Vol. 42, 2010, pp. 27-31. http://www.sbac.org.br/pt/pdfs/rbac/rbac_42_01/rbac_42_01_06.pdf
 K. Sahu, H. Bansal, C. Mukherjee, M. Sharma and P. K. Gupta, “Atomic Force Microscopic Study on Morphological Alterations Induced by Photodynamic Action of Toluidine Blue O in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Vol. 96, No. 1, 2009, pp. 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.03.008
 H. M. Al-Qadiri, N. I. Al-Alami, M. A. Al-Holy and B. A. Rasco, “Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Absorbance Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis to Study the Effect of Chlorine-Induced Bacterial Injury in Water,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, No. 19, 2008, pp. 8992-8997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf801604p
 P. D. Nichols, J. M. Henson, J. B. Guckert, D. E. Nivens and D. C. White, “Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for Microbial Ecology: Analysis of Bacteria, Bacteria-Polymer Mixtures and Biofilms,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1985, pp. 79-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-7012(85)90023-5
 P. Das, S. Mukherjee and R. Sen, “Antimicrobial Potential of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Derived from a Marine Bacillus circulans,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 104, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1675-1684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03701.x