JWARP  Vol.3 No.2 , February 2011
Groundwater Flow Model for a Tannery Belt in Southern India
ABSTRACT
The objective of this article is to develop a groundwater flow model for a tannery belt using Visual MOD-FLOW Premium 4.4 for analyzing groundwater velocity and its response to various pumping strategies in two stages, viz., steady and transient conditions. The steady state model was calibrated for April 2001, whereas the transient model was employed to forecast groundwater flow under various pumping strategies. The results showed that the total groundwater abstraction was about 80.43% of the groundwater recharge, but 10.25% was used up by evapotranspiration. The groundwater velocity, which is important for contaminant migration, varied from 0.21 to 0.52 m/d in the tannery cluster. The model was more sensitive to recharge from rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and specific yield. Finally, the model showed that the aquifer could sustain a pumping rate of 24892 m3/day without further decline in water level.

Cite this paper
nullN. Mondal, V. Singh and S. Sankaran, "Groundwater Flow Model for a Tannery Belt in Southern India," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2011, pp. 85-97. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.32010.
References
[1]   Public Works Department, “Groundwater Perspectives: A Profile of Dindigul District, Tamilnadu,” PWD (Governmentt of India) Reptort, Chennai, 2000.

[2]   V. S. Singh, N. C. Mondal, R. Barker, M. Thangarajan, T. V. Rao and K. Subramaniyam, “Assessment of Groundwater Regime in Kodaganar River Basin (Dindigul district), Tamilnadu,” Technical Report, 2003.

[3]   N. C. Mondal, V. K. Saxena and V. S. Singh, “Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Due to Tanneries in and around Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 48, 2005, pp. 149-157. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-1244-z

[4]   N. C. Mondal and V. P. Singh, “Need of Groundwater Management in Tannery Belt: A Scenario about Dindigul Town, Tamil Nadu,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 76, 2010, pp. 303-309.

[5]   M. G. McDonald and A. W. Harbaugh, “A Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Ground-Water Fl-ow Model,” U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 6, Chapter A1, 1988, p. 586.

[6]   N. C. Mondal and V. S. Singh, “A New Approach to Delineate the Groundwater Recharge Zone in Hard Rock Terrain,” Current Science, Vol. 87, 2004, pp. 658-662.

[7]   R. Chakrapani and P. M. Manickyan, “Groundwater Resources and Developmental Potential of Anna District, Tamil Nadu State,” CGWB Report, Southern Region, Hyderabad, India, 1988, p. 49.

[8]   M. S. Krishnan, “Geology of India and Burma,” CBS Publishers and Distributions, India, 1982.

[9]   V. S. Singh, “Well Storage Effect during Pumping Test in an Aquifer of Low Permeability,” Hydrological Science Journal, Vol. 45, 2000, pp. 589-594. doi:10.1080/02626660009492359

[10]   E. Orellana and H. M. Mooney, “Master Tables and Cu- rves for Vertical Electrical Sounding over Layered Structures,” Interciencia, Madrid, Spain, 1966.

[11]   B. Vander Velpen, “RESIST: a Computer Processing Package for DC Resistivity Interpretation for the IBM PC and Compatibles,” M. Sc. Thesis, ITC-Delft, The Netherlands, 1988.

[12]   N. C. Mondal and V. P. Singh, “Entropy-Based Approach for Estimation of Natural Recharge in Kodaganar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India,” Current Science, Vol. 99, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1560-1569.

[13]   K. R. Rushton and S. C. Redshaw, “Seepage and Groundwater Flow,” Wiley, Chichester [Eng.], New York, 1979.

[14]   Compagnie General de Geophysique, “Master Curves for Electrical Sounding,” European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG), The Hague, 1963, p. 49.

[15]   P. K. Bhattacharya and H. P. Patra, “Direct Current Geo- electric Sounding-Principles and Interpretation,” Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1968.

[16]   C. W. Fetter, “Applied Hydrogeology,” Prentice Hall, Inc. New York, 2001.

[17]   J. C. Nonner, “Introduction to Hydrogeology,” IHE Delft Lecture Notes Series, Taylor and Francis, London, 2006, p. 258.

[18]   U. Zimmermann, K. O. Munnich and W. Roether, “Downward Movement of Soil Moisture Traced by Means of Hydrogen Isotopes,” American Geophysical Union, Geo- physical Monograph Series, Vol. 11, 1967, pp. 28-36.

[19]   V. M. Chowdary, D. Ramakrishnan, Y. K. Srivastava, V. Chandran and A. Jeyaram, “Integrated Water Resource Development Plan for Sustainable Management of Mayurakshi Watershed, India Using Remote Sensing and GIS,” Water Resource Management, Vol. 23, 2009, pp. 1581-1602. doi:10.1007/s11269-008-9342-9

[20]   R. B. Salama, I. Tapley, T. Ishii and G. Hawkes, “Identification of Areas of Recharge and Discharge Using Landsat-TM Satellite Imagery and Aerial-Photography Mapping Techniques,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 162, No. 1-2, 1994, pp. 119-141. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(94)90007-8

[21]   P. Raj, “Trend Analysis of Groundwater Fluctuations in a Typical Groundwater Year in Weathered and Fractured Rock Aquifers in Parts of Andhra Pradesh,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 58, 2001, pp. 5-13.

[22]   D. Muralidharan and G. B. K. Shanker, “Various Methodologies of Artificial Recharge for Sustainable Gro- undwater in Quantity and Quality for Developing Water Supply Schemes,” In: Proceedings of the All Indian Seminar on Water Vision for the 21st Century, IAH, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 2000, p.208-229.

[23]   D. B. Bredenkamp and J. C. Vogel, “Study of a Dolomitic Aquifer with Carbon-14 and Tritium,” In: Isotope Hydrology, Proceedings Symposium of International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO, Vienna, March 1970. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency STI/PUB/255, Paper No SM-129/21, 1970, pp. 349-372.

[24]   T. Sibanda, J. C. Nonner and S. Uhlenbrook, “Comparison of Groundwater Recharge Estimation Methods for the Semi-Arid Nyamandhlovu Area, Zimbabwe,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 17, 2009, pp. 1427-1441. doi:10.1007/s10040-009-0445-z

[25]   R. Chand, G. K. Hodlur, R. Ravi Prakash, N. C. Mondal and V. S. Singh, “Reliable Natural Recharge Estimates in Granite Terrain,” Current Science, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 821-824.

[26]   R. Rangarajan, N. C. Mondal, V. S. Singh and S. V. Singh, “Estimation of Natural Recharge and Its Relation With Aquifer Parameters in and around Tuticorin Town, Tamil Nadu, India,” Current Science, Vol. 97, 2009, pp. 217-226.

[27]   V. P. Singh, “Entropy Based Parameters Estimation in Hydrology,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1998.

[28]   R. Rangarajan and R. N. Athavale, “Annual Replenishable Groundwater Potential of India - An Estimate Based on Injected Tritium Studies,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 234, 2000, pp. 38-53. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00239-0

[29]   M. P. Anderson and W. Woessner, “Applied Groundwater Modeling-Simulation of Flow and Advective Transport,” Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1992.

[30]   K. R. Rushton and J. Weller, “Response to pumping of a weathered-fractured granite aquifer,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 80, 1985, pp. 299-309. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(85)90123-4

[31]   Groundwater Resource Estimation Committee (GREC), “A Report on Ground Water Resource Estimation Methodology-1996,” Ministry of water resources (Government of India), 1996.

[32]   L. F. Konikow and J. D. Bredehoeft, “Computer Model of Two-Dimensional Solute Transport and Dispersion in Groundwater,” Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the USGS; Chapter C2, Book 7, 1978, p. 90.

 
 
Top