Application of Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Important Parameters of Magnetically Biased Microstrip Circular Patch Antenna

ABSTRACT

The application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to the optimization of important parameters (Directivity, Radiated Power, Impedance etc.) of magnetically biased microstrip antenna, fabricated on ferrite substrate, is reported. The fitness functions for the GA program have been developed using cavity method for the analysis of microstrip antenna. The effect of external magnetic biasing has also been incorporated in the fitness function formulation as effective propagation constant. Using stochastic based search method of GA the common characteristics of electro-magnetic were entertained which cannot be handled by other optimization techniques. The genetic algorithm was run for 500 generations. The computed results are in good agreement with the results obtained experimentally.

The application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to the optimization of important parameters (Directivity, Radiated Power, Impedance etc.) of magnetically biased microstrip antenna, fabricated on ferrite substrate, is reported. The fitness functions for the GA program have been developed using cavity method for the analysis of microstrip antenna. The effect of external magnetic biasing has also been incorporated in the fitness function formulation as effective propagation constant. Using stochastic based search method of GA the common characteristics of electro-magnetic were entertained which cannot be handled by other optimization techniques. The genetic algorithm was run for 500 generations. The computed results are in good agreement with the results obtained experimentally.

Cite this paper

nullN. Saxena, M. Khan, N. Kumar and P. Pourush, "Application of Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Important Parameters of Magnetically Biased Microstrip Circular Patch Antenna,"*Journal of Software Engineering and Applications*, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2011, pp. 129-136. doi: 10.4236/jsea.2011.42014.

nullN. Saxena, M. Khan, N. Kumar and P. Pourush, "Application of Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Important Parameters of Magnetically Biased Microstrip Circular Patch Antenna,"

References

[1] R. L. Haupt, “An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms for Electromagnetics,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Pro- pagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1995, pp. 7-15. doi:10.1109/74.382334

[2] N. Chattoraj and J. S. Roy, “The Optimization of Gain of Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm,” ACTA Technica Ceskoslovensk Akademie Ved Academic Journal, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2006, pp. 279-287.

[3] F. J. Villegas, T. Cwik, Y. Rahamat-Samii and M. Manteghi, “A Parallel Electromagnetic Genetic-Algorithm Optimization (EGO) Application for Patch Antenna Design,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2004, pp. 2424-2435. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.834071

[4] A. M. Wyant, “Genetic Algorithm Optimization Applied to Planar and Wire Antennas,” Master Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2007.

[5] A. Akdagli and K. Guney, “Effective Patch Radius Expression Obtained Using a Genetic Algorithm for the Resonant Frequency of Electrically Thin and Thick Circular Microstrip Antennas,” IEE Proceedings of Microwave and Antennas, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 156-159. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20000265

[6] N. Chattoraj and J. S. Roy, “Investigations on Microstrip Antennas Covered with a Dielectric Layer Using Genetic Algorithm,” Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale Conference, New Delhi, 23-29 October 2005.

[7] N. K. Saxena, A. Khan, P. K. S Pourush and N. Kumar, “Artificial Neural Network Analysis Optimization of Dielectric Constant & Side Length of Microstrip Triangular Patch Antenna,” International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2010, pp. 165-170.

[8] N. K. Saxena, A. Khan, P. K. S. Pourush and N. Kumar, “Neural Network Analysis of Switchability of Microstrip Rectangular Patch Antenna Printed on Ferrite Material,” International Journal of Radio Frequency and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-5.

[9] T.-J. Chiu, Y.-T. Kuo, H.-Y. Chao and Y.-M. Li, “Optimization of Physics-Based Equivalent Circuits for Microstrip Patch Antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Hsinchu, 9-15 June 2007, pp. 5785-5788.

[10] D. R. Jackson and N. G. Alexopoulos, “Simple Approximation Formulas for Input Resistance, Bandwidth, and Efficiency of a Resonant Rectangular Patch,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1991, pp. 407-410. doi:10.1109/8.76341

[11] G. León, R. R. Boix and F. Medina, “Tunability and Bandwidth of Microstrip Filters Fabricated on Magnetized Ferrites,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2004, pp. 171-173. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2004.827109

[12] G. León, R. R. Boix and F. Medina, “Full-Wave Analysis of a Wide Class of Microstrip Resonators Fabricated on Magnetized Ferrites with Arbitrarily Oriented Bias Magnetic Field,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1510-1519. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2002.1006412

[13] H. How and T. M. Fang, “Drop-on Circulator Design at X and Ka Bands,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1994, pp. 4548-4550. doi:10.1109/20.334144

[14] J. H. Holland, “Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems,” University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1975.

[15] D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Opti- mization, and Machine Learning,” Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

[16] D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms,” Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

[17] Z.-F. Li, J. L. Volakis and P. Y. Papalambros, “Optimization of Patch Antennas on Ferrite Substrate Using the Finite Element Methods,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999, pp. 1026-1029.

[18] D. M. Pozar, “Radiation and Scattering Characteristics of Microstrip Antennas on Normally Biased Ferrite Substrates,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 40, No. 10, 1992, pp. 1084-1092. doi:10.1109/8.166534

[19] L. Dixit and P. K. S. Pourush, “Radiation Characteristics of Switchable Ferrite Microstrip Array Antenna,” IEE Proceedings of Microwave and Antennas, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20000038

[20] M. S. Sodha and N. C. Srivastav, “Microwave Propagation in Ferrimagnetics,” Plenum Press, New York, 1981.

[21] R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl and A. Ittipiboon, “Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook,” Artech House Inc., Norwood, 2001.

[22] R. A. Stern, R. W. Babbit and J. Borowick, “A Mm-Wave Homogeneous Ferrite Scan Antenna,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 30, 1987, pp. 101-108.

[23] A. Henderson, J. R. James and D. Frey, “Magnetic Microstrip Antenna with Pattern Control,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 30, 1988, pp. 101-108. doi:10.1049/el:19880031

[24] J. R. James, el al., “Magnetic Microstrip Antenna with Pattern Control,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 24, No. 19, 1988, pp. 45-47. doi:10.1049/ el:19880491

[25] D. M. Pozar, “Radar Cross-Section of Microstrip Antenna on Normally Biased Ferrite Substrates,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 25, No. 16, 1989, pp. 1079-1080. doi:10.1049/el:19890722

[26] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, A. Reineix, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Circularly Polarized Far Fields of an Axially Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Microwave and Op- tical Technology Letters, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1992, pp. 228-230. doi:10.1002/mop.4650050508

[27] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, A. Reineix, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Axially Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas Propagation and Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale Conference Joint Inter- national Symposium, Chicago, 18-25 July 1992, pp. 2212- 2215.

[28] N. Das, S. K. Chowdhury and J. S. Chatterjee, “Circular Microstrip Antenna on a Ferrimagnetic Substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1983, pp. 188-190. doi:10.1109/TAP.1983.1142997

[29] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Antennas Propagation, Sapparo, 22-25 September 1992, pp 765-768.

[30] J. S. Roy and N. Chattoraj, “Magnetically Biased Ferrite Micrsotrip Antenna,” Proceedings of Antenna and Propagation Symposium, Cochin, 21-23 Deceber 2002, pp. 288- 291.

[31] J. J. Green and F. Sandy, “Microwave Characterization of Partially Magnetized Ferrites,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Techniques, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1974, pp. 641-645. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1974.1128306

[1] R. L. Haupt, “An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms for Electromagnetics,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Pro- pagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1995, pp. 7-15. doi:10.1109/74.382334

[2] N. Chattoraj and J. S. Roy, “The Optimization of Gain of Patch Antennas Using Genetic Algorithm,” ACTA Technica Ceskoslovensk Akademie Ved Academic Journal, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2006, pp. 279-287.

[3] F. J. Villegas, T. Cwik, Y. Rahamat-Samii and M. Manteghi, “A Parallel Electromagnetic Genetic-Algorithm Optimization (EGO) Application for Patch Antenna Design,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2004, pp. 2424-2435. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.834071

[4] A. M. Wyant, “Genetic Algorithm Optimization Applied to Planar and Wire Antennas,” Master Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2007.

[5] A. Akdagli and K. Guney, “Effective Patch Radius Expression Obtained Using a Genetic Algorithm for the Resonant Frequency of Electrically Thin and Thick Circular Microstrip Antennas,” IEE Proceedings of Microwave and Antennas, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 156-159. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20000265

[6] N. Chattoraj and J. S. Roy, “Investigations on Microstrip Antennas Covered with a Dielectric Layer Using Genetic Algorithm,” Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale Conference, New Delhi, 23-29 October 2005.

[7] N. K. Saxena, A. Khan, P. K. S Pourush and N. Kumar, “Artificial Neural Network Analysis Optimization of Dielectric Constant & Side Length of Microstrip Triangular Patch Antenna,” International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2010, pp. 165-170.

[8] N. K. Saxena, A. Khan, P. K. S. Pourush and N. Kumar, “Neural Network Analysis of Switchability of Microstrip Rectangular Patch Antenna Printed on Ferrite Material,” International Journal of Radio Frequency and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-5.

[9] T.-J. Chiu, Y.-T. Kuo, H.-Y. Chao and Y.-M. Li, “Optimization of Physics-Based Equivalent Circuits for Microstrip Patch Antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Hsinchu, 9-15 June 2007, pp. 5785-5788.

[10] D. R. Jackson and N. G. Alexopoulos, “Simple Approximation Formulas for Input Resistance, Bandwidth, and Efficiency of a Resonant Rectangular Patch,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1991, pp. 407-410. doi:10.1109/8.76341

[11] G. León, R. R. Boix and F. Medina, “Tunability and Bandwidth of Microstrip Filters Fabricated on Magnetized Ferrites,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2004, pp. 171-173. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2004.827109

[12] G. León, R. R. Boix and F. Medina, “Full-Wave Analysis of a Wide Class of Microstrip Resonators Fabricated on Magnetized Ferrites with Arbitrarily Oriented Bias Magnetic Field,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1510-1519. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2002.1006412

[13] H. How and T. M. Fang, “Drop-on Circulator Design at X and Ka Bands,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1994, pp. 4548-4550. doi:10.1109/20.334144

[14] J. H. Holland, “Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems,” University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1975.

[15] D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Opti- mization, and Machine Learning,” Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

[16] D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms,” Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

[17] Z.-F. Li, J. L. Volakis and P. Y. Papalambros, “Optimization of Patch Antennas on Ferrite Substrate Using the Finite Element Methods,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999, pp. 1026-1029.

[18] D. M. Pozar, “Radiation and Scattering Characteristics of Microstrip Antennas on Normally Biased Ferrite Substrates,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 40, No. 10, 1992, pp. 1084-1092. doi:10.1109/8.166534

[19] L. Dixit and P. K. S. Pourush, “Radiation Characteristics of Switchable Ferrite Microstrip Array Antenna,” IEE Proceedings of Microwave and Antennas, Vol. 147, No. 2, 2000, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20000038

[20] M. S. Sodha and N. C. Srivastav, “Microwave Propagation in Ferrimagnetics,” Plenum Press, New York, 1981.

[21] R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl and A. Ittipiboon, “Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook,” Artech House Inc., Norwood, 2001.

[22] R. A. Stern, R. W. Babbit and J. Borowick, “A Mm-Wave Homogeneous Ferrite Scan Antenna,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 30, 1987, pp. 101-108.

[23] A. Henderson, J. R. James and D. Frey, “Magnetic Microstrip Antenna with Pattern Control,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 30, 1988, pp. 101-108. doi:10.1049/el:19880031

[24] J. R. James, el al., “Magnetic Microstrip Antenna with Pattern Control,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 24, No. 19, 1988, pp. 45-47. doi:10.1049/ el:19880491

[25] D. M. Pozar, “Radar Cross-Section of Microstrip Antenna on Normally Biased Ferrite Substrates,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 25, No. 16, 1989, pp. 1079-1080. doi:10.1049/el:19890722

[26] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, A. Reineix, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Circularly Polarized Far Fields of an Axially Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Microwave and Op- tical Technology Letters, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1992, pp. 228-230. doi:10.1002/mop.4650050508

[27] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, A. Reineix, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Axially Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Proceedings of IEEE Antennas Propagation and Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale Conference Joint Inter- national Symposium, Chicago, 18-25 July 1992, pp. 2212- 2215.

[28] N. Das, S. K. Chowdhury and J. S. Chatterjee, “Circular Microstrip Antenna on a Ferrimagnetic Substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1983, pp. 188-190. doi:10.1109/TAP.1983.1142997

[29] J. S. Roy, P. Vaudon, F. Jecko and B. Jecko, “Magnetized Circular Ferrite Microstrip Antenna,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Antennas Propagation, Sapparo, 22-25 September 1992, pp 765-768.

[30] J. S. Roy and N. Chattoraj, “Magnetically Biased Ferrite Micrsotrip Antenna,” Proceedings of Antenna and Propagation Symposium, Cochin, 21-23 Deceber 2002, pp. 288- 291.

[31] J. J. Green and F. Sandy, “Microwave Characterization of Partially Magnetized Ferrites,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Techniques, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1974, pp. 641-645. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1974.1128306