S. Robert, S. M. Gottlieb, M. H.
Schanker, D. Joel, D. O.
Weisman, F. P. Thim, A. R.
Wolf and S. Andrew, “Pnuemocystiscarinii
Pnuemoniaand Mucosal Candidiasis in
Previously Healthy Homosexual
Men—Evidence of a new Acquire Cellular Immunodeficiency,” New England
Journal of Medicine,
Vol. 305, 1981, pp. 1425-1431.
http://dx.doi.org /10.1056 /NEJM198112103052401
 UNAIDS, “State of the Epidemic,” Report of the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2012, pp. 1-103.
http://www.unaids.org /en/media/unaids/contentassets /documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012 /20121120_UNAIDS_Global_Report_ 2012_with_annexes_en.pdf
 S. M. Hammer, J. J. Eron Jr., P. Reiss, et al., “Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2008 Recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel,” JAMA, Vol. 300, No. 5, 2008, pp. 555-570.
 G. Panos, G. Samonis, V. G. Alexiou, G. A. Kavarnou, G. Charatsis and M. E. Falagas, “Mortality and Mobidity of HIV-Infected Patients Receiving HAART: A Cohort Study,” Current HIV Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2008, pp. 257-260.
 P. Severe, P. Leger, M. Charles, et al., “Antiretroviral Therapy in a Thousand Patients with AIDS in Haiti,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 32, 2005, pp. 2325-2334.
 P. E. Sax, R. Islam, R. P. Walensky, et al., “Should Resistance Testing Be Performed for Treatment-Naïve HIVInfected Patients? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1316-1323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/496984
 A. Mocroft, S. Vella, T. Benifield, et al., “Charging Patterns of Mortality Across Europe in Patients Infected with HIV-1,” Lancet, Vol. 352, No. 9142, 1998, pp. 1725-1730.
 J. Marins, L. Jamal, S. Chen, et al., “Dramatic Improvement in Survival among Adult Brazilian AIDS Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2003, pp. 1675-1682.
 O. Odutolu, B. A. Ahonsi, M. Gboun and O. M. Jolayemi, “The National Response to HIV/AIDS,” In: O. Adeyi, P. H. Kanki, O. Odutolu and J. A. Idoko, Eds., AIDS in Nigeria: “A Nation on a Threshold”, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2006, pp. 241-279.
 C. Wallis, M. Papthanasopoulos, M. Fox, et al., “Lows Rate of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) Resistant Detected in a Well Monitored Cohort in South Africa Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy,” Antiviral Therapy, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2012, pp. 313-320.
 V. C. Marconi, H. Sunpath, Z. G. Lu, M. Gordon, K. Koranteng-Apeagyei, J. Hampton, S. Carpentar, et al., “Prevalence of HIV-1 Drug Resistance After Failure of a First Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1589-1597.
 H. Hatano, P. Hunt, J. Weidler, et al., “Rate of Vira Evolution and Risk of Losing Future Drug Options in Heavily Pretreated, HIV-Infected Patients Who Continue to Receive a Stable, Partially Suppressive Treatment Regimen,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1329-1336.
 Nigeria’s HIV/AIDS Information Website, “Current HIV/ AIDS Statistics in Nigeria.” www.nigeriahivinfo.com
 R. E. Nettles, T. L. Kieffer, R. P. Simmons, et al, “Genotypic Resistant in HIV-1-infcted Patients with Persistently Detectable Low Level Viremia While Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 39, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1030-1037.
 S. Palmer, M. Kearney, F. Maldarelli, et al., “Multiple, Linked Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment-Experienced Patients Are Missed by Standard Genotype Analysis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2005, pp. 406-413.
 F. Doualla-Bell, T. Gaolathe, A. Avalos, et al., “Five Years Follow Up of Genotypic Resistance Patterns in HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Patients in Botswana after Failure of Thymidine Analogue-Based Regimens,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol. 12, 2009, p. 25.
 E. O. Idigbe, T. A. Adewole, G. Eisie, et al., “Management of HIV-1 Infection with a Combination of Nevirapine, Stavudine, and Lamivudine: A Preliminary Report on Nigerian Antiretroviral Program,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2005, pp. 65-69.
 J. E. Gallant, A. E. Rodriguez, W. G. Weinberg, et al., “Early Virologic Nonresponse to Tenofovir, Abacavir, and Lamivudine in HIV-Infected Antiretroviral-Naïve Subjects,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 192, No. 11, 2005, pp. 921-930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/498069
 D. R. Kuritzkes, “Extending Antiretroviral Therapy to Resource-Poor Settings: Implications for Drug Resistance,” AIDS, Vol. 18, Suppl. 3, 2004, pp. S45-S48.
 J. M. Lang, J. Perriens, D. Kuritzkes and D. Zewdie, “What Policymakers Should Know about Drug Resistance and Adherence in the Context of Scaling-Up Treatment of HIV Infection,” AIDS, Vol. 18, Suppl. 13, 2004, pp. 569-574.
 B. Chaplin, G. Eisen, J. Idoko, D. Onwujekwe, E. Idigbe, I. Adewole, W. Gashau, S. Meloni, A. D. Sarr, J. L. Sankalé, E. Ekong, R. L. Murphy and P. Kanki, “Impact of HIV Type 1 Subtype on Drug Resistance Mutations in Nigerian Patients Failing First-Line Therapy,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2011, pp. 71-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2010.0050
 G. N. Odaibo, S. O. Ola, M. Landerz, U. Dietrich and D. O. Olaleye, “HIV-1 Drug Resistant Mutations in Chronically Infected Treatment Naive Individuals in the PreARV Era in Nigeria,” African Journal of Medicine & Medical Sciences, Vol. 41, 2012, pp. 61-63.
 A. M. J. Wensing, D. A. van de Vijver, G. Angarano, et al., “Prevalence of Drug-Resistance HIV-1 Variants in Untreated Individuals in Europe: Implications for Clinical Management,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 192, No. 6, 2005, pp. 958-966.
 D. Paraskevis, E. Magiokinis, A. Katsoulidou, et al., “Prevalence of Resistance-Associated Mutations in Newly Diagnosed HIV-1 Patients in Greece,” Virus Research, Vol. 112, No. 1, 2005, pp. 115-122.
 S. J. Litle, S. Holte, J. P. Routy, et al., “Antiretroviral-Drug Resistance among Patients Recently Infected with HIV,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 347, 2002, pp. 385-394.
 R. L. Hamers, K. C. Sigaloff, A. M. Wensing, L. C. Wallis, C. KItyo, M. Siwale, K. Mandaliya, et al., “Patterns of HIV-1 Drug Resistance after First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Failure in 6 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Implications for Second-Line ART Strategies,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 54, No. 11, 2012, pp. 1660-1669.
 S. Jallow, A. Alabi, R. Sarge-Njie, K. Peterson, H. Whittle, et al., “Virological Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) and in Patients Dually Infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and Emergence of Drug Resistant Variants,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2200-2208.
 E. A. Abar, A. Jlizi, Y. H. Darar, et al., “HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping from Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Na?ve and First-Line Treatment Failures in Djiboutian Patients,” Diagnostic Pathology, Vol. 7, 2012, p. 138.