IJAA  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2013
About Role of Electromagnetism to the Saturn Rings Origin
—To the Unified Theory of the Planetary Rings Origin
ABSTRACT

Experimental data observation of the Saturn rings points to the conjecture that the particles constituting the rings may be superconductive. The main argument for this based on the fact that Saturn has a magnetic field and the temperature in its vicinity is low enough. Electromagnetic modeling shows the rings system emerges some time after appearance of the planetary magnetic field. Rings can be a result of the interaction of the superconducting carbon doped ice particles of the protoplanetary cloud with the nonuniform magnetic field. At the beginning all Keplerian orbits of the particles are located within protoplanetary cloud. After appearance of the magnetic field of Saturn, all iced particles demonstrate superconductivity and their orbits start to move to the magnetic equator plane where there is a minimum of magnetic energy. And then particles redistributed like iron particles nearby magnet on laboratory table forming system of rings and gaps. But rings particles are not stuck together because of Meissner phenomenon. The gravitational resonances and other interactions also play an important role and they help bring the order to the system of rings and gaps. It becomes to be clear why the rings appear only for the planets with magnetic field outside the asteroid belt such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Inside the asteroid belt Suns heat is destroying superconductivity. Scenario of the rings creation for all planets could be the same. So we are coming to the unified theory of the rings origin. The presented model allows enriching the well-known theories that treat gravitational, mechanical, gas-plasma, dusty plasma and magnetohydrodynamic interactions in a consistent way.


Cite this paper
Vladimir V. Tchernyi, "About Role of Electromagnetism to the Saturn Rings Origin —To the Unified Theory of the Planetary Rings Origin," International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 412-420. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.34049.
References
[1]   J. C. Maxwell, “On the Stability of the Motion of Saturn’s Rings,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 19, 1859, pp. 297-304.

[2]   J. C. Maxwell, S. G. Brush, C. W. F. Everitt and E. Garber, “Maxwell on Saturn’s Rings,” MIT Press, Cambridge, 1983.

[3]   V. S. Safronov, “Evolution of Protoplanetary Cloud and Formation of the Earth and Planets,” Nauka, Moscow, 1969. (in Russian)

[4]   R. M. Goldstein and G. A. Morris, “Radar Observations of the Rings of Saturn,” Icarus, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1973, pp. 249-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0019-1035(73)90002-X

[5]   M. L. Kaiser, V. D. Desch and A. Lecacheus, “Saturnian Kilometric Radiation: Statistical Properties and Beam Geometry,” Nature, Vol. 292, 1981, pp. 731-733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/292731a0

[6]   H. Alfven, “Cosmic Plasma,” Springer, 1983.

[7]   H. Alfven, “Solar System History as Recorded in the Saturnian Ring Structure,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 97, 1981, pp. 79-94.

[8]   D. Talbott, “The Plasma Universe of Hannes Alfven,” Edgescience, 9, October-December 2011, pp. 5-10.

[9]   A. Brahic, “Planetary Rings,” Toulouse, Copadeus, 1984.

[10]   R. Greenberg and A. Brahic, “Planetary Rings,” University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1984.

[11]   A. N. Bliokh and V. V. Yaroshenko, “‘Spokes’ in the Rings of Saturn,” Nature, Vol. 4, 1991, pp. 19-25. (in Russian)

[12]   D. A. Mendis, J. R. Hill, W. H. Ip, C. K. Goertz and E. Grun, “Electrodynamics Processes in the Ring System of Saturn,” In: T. Gehrels and M. Mathews, Eds., Saturn, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1984, pp. 546-589.

[13]   D. A. Mendis and M. Rosenberg, “Cosmic Dusty Plasma,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 32, 1994, pp. 419-463.

[14]   D. Morrison and T. C. Owen, “The Planetary System,” Addison-Wesley Longman, Boston, 2003.

[15]   N. N. Gor’kavyi and A. M. Fridman, “Physics of the Planetary Rings: Celestial Mechanics of Continuous Medium,” Nauka, Moscow, 1994. (in Russian)

[16]   B. I. Rabinovich, “Magnetohydrodynamic of Rotating Vortex Rings with Magnetized Plasma,” Doklady: Physics, Vol. 351, 1996, pp. 335-338.

[17]   B. I. Rabinovich, “Rotating Plasma Ring in Gravitational and Magnetic Fields. Stability Problems,” Doklady: Physics, Vol. 367, 1999, pp. 345-348. (in Russian)

[18]   L. J. Spilker, “The Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn and Titan,” NASA SP-533, JPL, Caltech, Washington DC, 1997.

[19]   T. Yokota, “Ring Simulation Experiment Using Fine Particle Plasmas,” IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2001, pp. 279-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/27.923708

[20]   P. K. Shukla, A. A. Mamun and R. Bingham, “Comment on Mach Cones and Magnetic Forces in Saturn’s Rings,” JETP Letters, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2003, pp. 99-100.

[21]   L. Rowan, A. Sanchez-Lavega, T. I. Gombosi, K. S. Hansen, C. C. Porco, F. M. Flasar, L. W. Esposito, D. A. Gurnett, J. H. Waite Jr., D. T. Young, M. K. Dougherty, S. M. Krimigis and S. Kempf, “Cassini at Saturn,” Science, Vol. 307, No. 5713, 2005, pp. 1222-1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science. 307.5713.1222

[22]   J. A. Burns and J. N. Cuzzi, “Our Local Astrophysical Laboratory,” Science, Vol. 312, No. 5781, 2006, pp. 1753-1755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1114856

[23]   M. Dougherty, L. Esposito and T. Krimigis, “Saturn from Cassini-Huygens,” Springer, Dordrecht, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9217-6

[24]   J. N. Cuzzi, J. A. Burns, S. Charnoz, R. N. Clark, J. E. Colwell, L. Dones, L. W. Esposito, G. Filacchione, R. G. French, M. M. Hedman, S. Kempf, E. A. Marouf, C. D. Murray, P. D. Nicholson, C. C. Porco, J. Schmidt, M. R. Showalter, L. J. Spilker, J. N. Spitale, R. Srama, M. Srem?evi?, M. S. Tiscareno and J. Weiss, “An Evolving View of Saturn’s Dynamic Rings,” Science, Vol. 327, No. 5972, 2010, pp. 1470-1475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1179118

[25]   S. Gary, “Saturn’s Rings a Chaotic Clutter,” 2010. www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2010/03/19/ 2849841.htm

[26]   H. Salo, “Twisted Discs,” Science, Vol. 332, 2011, pp. 672-673.

[27]   H. Salo, “Simulating the Formation of Fine-Scale Structure in Saturn Rings,” Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement, Vol. 195, 2012, pp. 48-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/PTPS.195.48

[28]   W. Lyra and M. Kuchner, “Formation of Sharp Eccentric Rings in Debris Disks with Gas But without Planets,” Nature, Vol. 499, No. 7457, 2013, pp. 184-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12281

[29]   M. S. Tiscareno, J. Colin, C. S. Mitchell, C. D. Murray, D. Di Nino, M. M. Hedman, J. Schmidt, J. A. Burns, J. N. Cuzzi, C. C. Porco, K. Beurle and M. W. Evans, “Observations of Ejecta Clouds Produced by Impacts onto Saturn’s Rings,” Science, Vol. 340, No. 6131, 2013, pp. 460-464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1233524

[30]   A. Yu. Pospelov and V. V. Tchernyi, “Electromagnetic Properties Material Forecast in the Planet Rings by the Methods of Functionally Physical Analysis,” Proceedings of International Scientific-Methodological Conference on Innovative Design in Education, Techniques and Technologies, Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, 1995, pp. 75-77.

[31]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. V. Girich, “Planet’s Rings: Super-Diamagnetic Model and New Course of Investigations,” Proceedings of SPIE 42nd Annual Meeting, Vol. 3116, San Diego, 27 July-1 August 1997, pp. 117-128.

[32]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. V. Girich, “Possible Explanation of the Planet’s Rings Behavior in the Radio and mm-Wave Range via Superdiamagnetic Model,” SPIE International Symposium on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, Kona, 20-23 July1998, Paper No. 73.

[33]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. V. Girich, “Superdiamagnetic Model of Planetary Rings Behavior in the Millimeter and Submullimeter Range,” Digest 3465—4th International Conference on MM and SMM Waves and Applications, Proceedings of SPIE 43rd Annual International Symposium, San Diego, 1998, pp. 172-173.

[34]   S. V. Girich, A. Yu. Pospelov and V. V. Tchernyi, “Radar Data Explanation via Superdiamagnetic Model of the Saturn’s Rings,” Annual Report of AAS, 30th Meeting Division of Planetary Science, Madison, 11-16 October 1998, p. 1043.

[35]   V. V. Tchernyi, A. Yu. Pospelov and S. G. Girich, “Studies on the rings of Saturn,” The Academy for Future Science, Los Gatos, 1998.

[36]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. G. Girich, “Anomalous Inversion of Polarization of Icy Satellites and Saturn’s Rings: Superdiamagnetic Model,” Proceedings of 44th SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 18-23 July 1999, pp. 329-333.

[37]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. G. Girich, “Are Saturn’s Rings Superconducting?” Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium, MIT, Cambridge, 5-14 July 2000, p. 1158;

[38]   A. Yu. Pospelov, V. V. Tchernyi and S. G. Girich, “Are Saturn Rings Superconducting?” University of Alabama, Huntsville, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Space Physics Colloquium, Aug. 20, 1999.

[39]   V. V. Tchernyi and A. Yu. Pospelov, “Possible Electromagnetic Nature of the Saturn’s Rings: Superconductivity and Magnetic Levitation,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research (PIER), Vol. 52, 2005, pp. 277-299; http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIER04082801

[40]   V. V. Tchernyi and A. Yu. Pospelov, “About Possible Electromagnetic Nature of the Planetary Rings: Magnetic Levitation of Superconducting Rings of Saturn,” Fizika Volnovykh Processov I Radiotehnicheskih System, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005, pp. 4-16. (in Russian)

[41]   V. V. Tchernyi and A. Yu. Pospelov, “About Hypothesis of the Superconducting Origin of the Saturn’s Rings,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 307, No. 4, 2007, pp. 347-356. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10509-006-9054-7

[42]   V. V. Tchernyi and E. V. Chensky, “Electromagnetic Background for Possible Magnetic Levitation of the Superconducting Rings of Saturn,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 15, 2005, pp. 1997-2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156939305775570440

[43]   V. V. Tchernyi, E. V. Chensky, “Movements of the Protoplanetary Superconducting Particles in the Magnetic Field of Saturn Lead to the Origin of Rings,” Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters-IEEE, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005, pp. 445-446 (Corrections, IEEE GRSL, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2005.852767 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2006.872347

[44]   V. V. Tchernyi, “Possible Superconductivity of Saturn Rings,” University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, Colloquia: Spring/Summer 2002, Aug. 7, 2002.

[45]   V. V. Tchernyi (Cherny), “About Possible Role of Electromagnetism and Superconductivity for the Origin of Saturn Rings,” Prikladnaya Fizika (Applied Physics), Vol. 5, 2006, pp. 10-16. (in Russian)

[46]   “Possible Role of Superconductivity and Electromagnetism for the Origin of the Rings of Saturn,” Proceedings of International Conference of Fundamental Principles of Engineering Sciences, Moscow, 25-27 October 2006, pp. 257-259. (in Russian)

[47]   V. V. Tchernyi (Cherny), “Chapter 11. Origin of the Saturn Rings: Electromagnetic Model of the Sombrero Rings Formation,” In: J. H. Denis and P. D. Aldridge, Eds., Space Exploration Research, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, pp. 261-275;

[48]   V. V. Tchernyi (Cherny), “Origin of the Saturn Rings: Electromagnetic Model of the Sombrero Rings Formation,” Journal of Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma and Space Research, Vol. 14, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 385-398.

[49]   V. V. Tchernyi, “To Discovery of Initial Formation (Origin) of the Sombrero Rings of Saturn: Role of Electromagnetism,” International Astronomical Union, Assembly, XXVII General Assembly, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 August 2009, Abstract book, Symposium No. 263: Icy Bodies in the Solar System, Report No. 263, pp. 56, 63. http://www.observatorio.unal.edu.co/investigacion/archivos/AbsBookXX VIIga09.pdf

[50]   V. V. Tchernyi, “To Discovery of the Saturn Rings Origin: Possible Separation and Collision of the Saturn Rings Particles during Its Evolution Based on Superconductivity and Electromagnetism,” International Astronomical Union, Assembly, XXVII General Assembly, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 August 2009, Abstract Book, Symposium No. 263: Icy Bodies in the Solar System, Report No. 263, pp. 57, 63-64.

[51]   V. V. Tchernyi (Cherny), “Could Superconductivity Contribute to the Saturn Rings Origin?” Journal of Modern Physics (Special Issue on Superconducting Physics), Vol. 4, No. 6A, 2013, pp. 17-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2013.46A005

[52]   V. V. Cherny (Tchernyi), “The Saturn Rings Origin: Contribution of Electromagnetism (to the Unified Theory of the Origin of Planetary Rings),” American Journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 15-22.

[53]   J. G. Bednorz and K. A. Müller, “Possible high Tc Superconductivity in the Ba-La-Cu-O System,” Zeitschrift für Physik B, Vol. 64, 1986, pp. 189-193.

[54]   G. V. Babushkina, L. Ya. Kobelev, E. N. Yakovlev and A. N. Babushkin, “Superconductivity of Ice under High Pressure,” Physics of Solid State, Vol. 28, 1986, pp. 3732-3734. (in Russian)

[55]   M. Coté, J. C. Grossman, M. L. Cohen and S. G. Louie, “Electron-Phonon Interactions in Solid C36,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1998, pp. 697-700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev Lett.81.697

[56]   G. Deutscher, M. Azoulay, B. Almog and B. Deutscher, “Quantum Levitation, Quantum Locking, Quantum Trapping,” ASTC Conference, Maryland, 15-18 October 2011. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Ws6AAhTw7RA http://www.ted.com/talks/boaz_almog_levitates_a_superconductor.html

[57]   N. Maeno, “The Science of Ice,” Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 1981.

[58]   V. V. Tchernyi and S. V. Kapranov, “Possible Role of Superconductivity for Simplest Life Propagation within the Interstellar Space by Electromagnetic Force of Magnetic Levitation,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 15, 2005, pp. 1997-2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156939305775570440

[59]   V. V. Tchernyi and S. V. Kapranov, “Contribution of Superconductivity to Possible Interstellar Propagation of Organic Molecules by Electromagnetic Way,” In: R. G. R. Gladstone, B. Hoover, G. V. Levin and A. Y. Rozanov, Eds., SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 5906, Astrobiology and Planetary Missions, San Diego, 2005.

 
 
Top