Switched Reluctance Generator for Variable Speed Wind Energy Applications

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of switched reluctance generator (SRG) in wind energy application. The machine comprises of switched reluctance generator, power converter and controller. In this paper the main ele-ments that form the generator system is discussed. It also highlights the common type of converter and structure used for SRG in wind energy application and types of control strategy available. Using power converter for switching the generator can operate over a wide speed range. Its applications in high speed area such as starter/generator for air-craft and gas turbine has been established, however the low/medium speed operation is still at an early stage of re-search. In order to subject the machine to various parameters, offline modeling is being investigated to produce the best optimum design.

The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of switched reluctance generator (SRG) in wind energy application. The machine comprises of switched reluctance generator, power converter and controller. In this paper the main ele-ments that form the generator system is discussed. It also highlights the common type of converter and structure used for SRG in wind energy application and types of control strategy available. Using power converter for switching the generator can operate over a wide speed range. Its applications in high speed area such as starter/generator for air-craft and gas turbine has been established, however the low/medium speed operation is still at an early stage of re-search. In order to subject the machine to various parameters, offline modeling is being investigated to produce the best optimum design.

Cite this paper

nullA. Arifin and I. Al-Bahadly, "Switched Reluctance Generator for Variable Speed Wind Energy Applications,"*Smart Grid and Renewable Energy*, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2011, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2011.21004.

nullA. Arifin and I. Al-Bahadly, "Switched Reluctance Generator for Variable Speed Wind Energy Applications,"

References

[1] H. Chen, “Implementation of a Three-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator System for Wind Power Applications,” 14th Symposium on Electromagnetic Launch Technology, Victoria, 2008, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ELT.2008.104

[2] E. Darie and C. Cepisca, “The Use of Switched Reluctance Generator in Wind Energy Applications,” 13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Poznan, 2008, pp. 1963-1966. doi:10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635553

[3] R. Cardenas, W. F. Ray and G. M. Asher, “Switched re-Luctance Generators for Wind Energy Applications,” 26th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Atlanta, 1995, pp. 559-564.

[4] Q. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Zhu and D. Liu, “A Small Single-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Power Generation,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Shenyang, 2001, pp. 1003-1006.

[5] C. Hao, M. Chao and Z. Xucheng, “Research on the Switched Reluctance Wind Generator System,” 2001 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Tucson, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1936-1941.

[6] R. Cardenas, R. Pena, M. Perez, J. Clare, G. Asher and P. Wheeler, “Control of a Switched Reluctance Generator for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Applications,” IEEE transactions on Energy conversion, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 781-791.

[7] P. Chancharoensook and M. F. Rahman, “Control of a Four-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator: Experimental Investigations,” IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, Madison, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 842- 848.

[8] E. Echenique, J. Dixon, R. Cardenas and R. Pena, “Sensorless Control for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current Slopes and Neural Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 3, March 2009, pp. 817-825. doi:10.1109/TIE.2008.2005940

[9] H. C. Lovatt and J. M. Stephenson, “Influence of Number of Poles per Phase in Switched Reluctance Motors,” IEE Proceedings-B Electric Power Applications, Vol. 139, No. 4, July 1992, pp. 307-314. doi:10.1049/ip-b.1992.0037

[10] M. A. Mueller, “Design of Low Speed Switched Reluctance Machines for Wind Energy Converters,” Ninth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives, Canterbury, 1999, pp. 60-64. doi:10.1049/cp:19990991

[11] M. A. Mueller, “Design and Performance of a 20 kW, 100 rpm, Switched Reluctance Generator for a Direct Drive Wind Energy Converter,” IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives, San Antonio, 2005, pp. 56-63. doi:10.1109/IEMDC.2005.195701

[12] A. Fleury, D. Andrade, E. S. L. Oliveira, G. A. Fleury- Neto, T. F. Oliveira, R. J. Dias and A. W. F. V. Silveira, “Study on an Alternative Converter Performance for Switched Reluctance Generator,” Industrial Electronics, 2008. IE-CON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE, Orlando, 2008, pp. 1409-1414.

[13] W. S. Heglund and S. R. Jones, “Performance of a New Commutation Approach for Switched Reluctance Generators,” Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Honolulu, 1997, pp. 574-579.

[14] M. Lipták, V. Hrabovcová, P. Rafajdus and B. Zigmund, “Switched Reluctance Machine with Asymmetric Power Converter in Generating Mode,” Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-10.

[15] N. K. Singh, J. E. Fletcher, S. J. Finney, D. M. Grant and B. W. Williams, “Evaluation of Sparse PWM Converter for Switched Reluctance Generator,” International Conference on Power Electronics and Drives Systems (PEDS), Kuala Lumpur, 2005, pp. 721-725.

[16] A. Takahashi, H. Goto, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe and O. Ichinokura, “Characteristics of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Generator Excited by Suppression Resistor Converter,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3458-3460. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2006.880388

[17] K. Ogawa, N. Yamamura and M. Ishda, “Study for Small Size Wind Power Generating System Using Switched Reluctance Generator,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Mumbai, 15-17 December 2006, pp. 1510-1515. doi:10.1109/ICIT.2006.372468

[18] Y. Sozer and D. A. Torrey, “Closed Loop Control of Excitation Parameters for High Speed Switched-Reluctance Generators,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 2, March 2004, pp. 355-362. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2003.823178

[19] C. Pollock and B. W. Williams, “Power Convertor Circuits for Switched Reluctance Motors with the Minimum Number of Switches,” Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings B [see also IEE Proceedings-Electric Power Applications], Vol. 137, No. 6, 1990, pp. 373-384. doi:10.1049/ip-b.1990.0046

[20] E. Elwakil and M. Darwish, “Critical Review of Converter Topologies for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives,” International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2007, pp. 50-58.

[21] M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk and M. Nagrial, “Study on Excitation Control of Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Energy Conversion,” Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), Sydney, 2008, pp. 1-5.

[22] A. Fleury, D. Andrade, A. W. F. V. Silveira, F. S. L. Ribeiro, A. Coelho and L. G. Cabral, “Dependence of the Switched Reluctance Generator Output on the Speed and the Excitation Voltage,” 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics (IECON), Orlando, 2008, pp. 1101- 1105.

[23] D. A. Torrey, “Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-14. doi:10.1109/41.982243

[24] C. Mademlis and I. Kioskeridis, “Optimizing Performance in Current-Controlled Switched Reluctance Generators,” IEEE Transactions on Energy conversion, Vol. 20, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 556-565. doi:10.1109/TEC.2005.852960

[25] E. Mese, Y. Sozer, J. M. Kokernak and D. A. Torrey, “Optimal Excitation of a High Speed Switched Reluctance Generator,” Fifteenth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2000, pp. 362-368. doi:10.1109/APEC.2000.826128

[1] H. Chen, “Implementation of a Three-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator System for Wind Power Applications,” 14th Symposium on Electromagnetic Launch Technology, Victoria, 2008, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ELT.2008.104

[2] E. Darie and C. Cepisca, “The Use of Switched Reluctance Generator in Wind Energy Applications,” 13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Poznan, 2008, pp. 1963-1966. doi:10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635553

[3] R. Cardenas, W. F. Ray and G. M. Asher, “Switched re-Luctance Generators for Wind Energy Applications,” 26th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Atlanta, 1995, pp. 559-564.

[4] Q. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Zhu and D. Liu, “A Small Single-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Power Generation,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Shenyang, 2001, pp. 1003-1006.

[5] C. Hao, M. Chao and Z. Xucheng, “Research on the Switched Reluctance Wind Generator System,” 2001 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Tucson, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1936-1941.

[6] R. Cardenas, R. Pena, M. Perez, J. Clare, G. Asher and P. Wheeler, “Control of a Switched Reluctance Generator for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Applications,” IEEE transactions on Energy conversion, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 781-791.

[7] P. Chancharoensook and M. F. Rahman, “Control of a Four-Phase Switched Reluctance Generator: Experimental Investigations,” IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, Madison, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 842- 848.

[8] E. Echenique, J. Dixon, R. Cardenas and R. Pena, “Sensorless Control for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current Slopes and Neural Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 3, March 2009, pp. 817-825. doi:10.1109/TIE.2008.2005940

[9] H. C. Lovatt and J. M. Stephenson, “Influence of Number of Poles per Phase in Switched Reluctance Motors,” IEE Proceedings-B Electric Power Applications, Vol. 139, No. 4, July 1992, pp. 307-314. doi:10.1049/ip-b.1992.0037

[10] M. A. Mueller, “Design of Low Speed Switched Reluctance Machines for Wind Energy Converters,” Ninth International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives, Canterbury, 1999, pp. 60-64. doi:10.1049/cp:19990991

[11] M. A. Mueller, “Design and Performance of a 20 kW, 100 rpm, Switched Reluctance Generator for a Direct Drive Wind Energy Converter,” IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives, San Antonio, 2005, pp. 56-63. doi:10.1109/IEMDC.2005.195701

[12] A. Fleury, D. Andrade, E. S. L. Oliveira, G. A. Fleury- Neto, T. F. Oliveira, R. J. Dias and A. W. F. V. Silveira, “Study on an Alternative Converter Performance for Switched Reluctance Generator,” Industrial Electronics, 2008. IE-CON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE, Orlando, 2008, pp. 1409-1414.

[13] W. S. Heglund and S. R. Jones, “Performance of a New Commutation Approach for Switched Reluctance Generators,” Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Honolulu, 1997, pp. 574-579.

[14] M. Lipták, V. Hrabovcová, P. Rafajdus and B. Zigmund, “Switched Reluctance Machine with Asymmetric Power Converter in Generating Mode,” Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-10.

[15] N. K. Singh, J. E. Fletcher, S. J. Finney, D. M. Grant and B. W. Williams, “Evaluation of Sparse PWM Converter for Switched Reluctance Generator,” International Conference on Power Electronics and Drives Systems (PEDS), Kuala Lumpur, 2005, pp. 721-725.

[16] A. Takahashi, H. Goto, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe and O. Ichinokura, “Characteristics of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Generator Excited by Suppression Resistor Converter,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3458-3460. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2006.880388

[17] K. Ogawa, N. Yamamura and M. Ishda, “Study for Small Size Wind Power Generating System Using Switched Reluctance Generator,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Mumbai, 15-17 December 2006, pp. 1510-1515. doi:10.1109/ICIT.2006.372468

[18] Y. Sozer and D. A. Torrey, “Closed Loop Control of Excitation Parameters for High Speed Switched-Reluctance Generators,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 2, March 2004, pp. 355-362. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2003.823178

[19] C. Pollock and B. W. Williams, “Power Convertor Circuits for Switched Reluctance Motors with the Minimum Number of Switches,” Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings B [see also IEE Proceedings-Electric Power Applications], Vol. 137, No. 6, 1990, pp. 373-384. doi:10.1049/ip-b.1990.0046

[20] E. Elwakil and M. Darwish, “Critical Review of Converter Topologies for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives,” International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2007, pp. 50-58.

[21] M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk and M. Nagrial, “Study on Excitation Control of Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Energy Conversion,” Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), Sydney, 2008, pp. 1-5.

[22] A. Fleury, D. Andrade, A. W. F. V. Silveira, F. S. L. Ribeiro, A. Coelho and L. G. Cabral, “Dependence of the Switched Reluctance Generator Output on the Speed and the Excitation Voltage,” 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics (IECON), Orlando, 2008, pp. 1101- 1105.

[23] D. A. Torrey, “Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-14. doi:10.1109/41.982243

[24] C. Mademlis and I. Kioskeridis, “Optimizing Performance in Current-Controlled Switched Reluctance Generators,” IEEE Transactions on Energy conversion, Vol. 20, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 556-565. doi:10.1109/TEC.2005.852960

[25] E. Mese, Y. Sozer, J. M. Kokernak and D. A. Torrey, “Optimal Excitation of a High Speed Switched Reluctance Generator,” Fifteenth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2000, pp. 362-368. doi:10.1109/APEC.2000.826128