With the purpose of studying the influence of population dynamics and economic growth on energy consumption and carbon emissions, an endogenous economic growth model is proposed incorporating physical and human capital and using an Agent-Based Model. The model can test different development strategies by identifying the key factors existing at the agent level that may speed up or slow down a given path, and therefore it is an interesting tool to develop and to test mitigation and/or adaptation measures. Favorable scenarios may be possible in societies that encourage investment in human capital through education and technological development, provided that this is accompanied by a reduction in consumption rates and the creation of physical capital by the population. Moreover, this model shows that human capital resulting from education not only raises productivity, but also plays a key role in the development and adoption of new technologies that drive long-term growth.
 United Nations, “Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision,” 2010. www.un.org/esa/ population/unpop.htm
 R. Solow, “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1959, pp. 65-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1884513
 T. Swan, “Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation,” Economic Record, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1956, pp. 334-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.1956.tb00434.x
 P. Romer, “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 94, No. 5, 1986, pp. 1002-1037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/261420
 F. Ramsey, “A Mathematical Theory of Saving,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 38, No. 152, 1928, pp. 543-559. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2224098
 M. Kremer, “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million BC to 1990,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 108, No. 3, 1993, pp. 681-716. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2118405
 O. Galor and D. Weil, “Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and Beyond,” American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 4, 2000, pp. 806-828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.90.4.806
 R. Willis, “A new Approach to the Economic Theory of Fertility Behavior,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, No. 2, 1973, pp. S14-S64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/260152
 G. Becker and H. Lewis, “On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, No. 2, 1973, pp. S279-S288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/260166
 G. Becker, K. Murphy and R. Tamura, “Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 5, 1990, pp. S12-S37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/261723
 C. Jones, “R&D-Based Models of Economic Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 103, No. 4, 1995, pp. 759-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/262002
 R. Lee and A. Mason, “Some Macroeconomic Aspects of Global Population Aging,” Demography, Vol. 47 Suppl, 2010, pp. S151-S172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/dem.2010.0002
 N. Jennings, K. Sycara and M. Wooldridge, “A Roadmap of Agent Research and Development,” Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998, pp. 7-38. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1023/A:1010090405266
 M. Wooldridge and N. Jennings, “Software Engineering with Agents: Pitfalls and Pratfalls,” Internet Computing, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1999, pp. 20-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/4236.769419
 E. Bonabeau, “Agent-Based Modeling: Methods and Techniques for Simulating Human Systems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, 2002, pp. 7280-7287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.082080899
 H. Kelley and T. Evans, “The Relative Influences of Land-Owner and Landscape Heterogeneity in an AgentBased Model of Land-Use,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 70, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1075-1087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.12.009
 F. Bert, G. Podestá, S. Rovere, á. Menéndez, M. North, E. Tatara, C. Laciana, E. Weber and F. Ruiz Toranzo, “An Agent Based Model to Simulate Structural and Land Use Changes in Agricultural Systems of the Argentine Pampas,” Ecological Modelling, Vol. 222, No. 19, 2011, pp. 3486-3499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.08.007
 R. Damaceanu, “An Agent-Based Computational Study of Wealth Distribution in Function of Resource Growth Interval Using Netlogo,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 201, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 371-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2007.12.042
 S. Natarajan, J. Padget and L. Elliott, “Modelling UK Domestic Energy and Carbon Emissions: An AgentBased Approach,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2011, pp. 2602-2612.
 E. Chappin and G. Dijkema, “On the Impact of CO2 Emission-Trading on Power Generation Emissions,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2009, pp. 358-370.
 M. Janssen and B. De Vries, “The Battle of Perspectives: a Multi-Agent Model with Adaptive Responses to Climate Change,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 26, 1998, pp. 43-65.
 J. Farmer and D. Foley, “The Economy Needs Agent-Based Modelling,” Nature, Vol. 460, No. 7256, 2009, pp. 685-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/460685a
 R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin, “Two-Sector Models of Endogenous Growth (with Special Attention to the Role of Human Capital),” In: R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin, Eds., Economic Growth, 2nd Edition, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 2004, pp. 239-284.
 E. Puliafito, J. Puliafito and M. Conte Grand, “Modeling Population Dynamics and Economic Growth as Competing Species: An Application to CO2 Global Emissions,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2008, pp. 602-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.08.010
 M. Raupach, J. Canadell and C. Le Quéré, “Anthropogenic and Biophysical Contributions to Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Growth Rate and Airborne Fraction,” Biogeosciences, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1601-1613. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-5-1601-2008
 British Petroleum, “British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012,” London, 2012. www.bp.com/statisticalreview
 World Bank, “World Bank Database,” World Development Indicators (WDI) and Global Development Finance (GDF), Washington DC, 2011. http://databank.worldbank.org/
 T. Boden, G. Marland and R. Andres, “Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,” US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, 2011.
 A. Grubler, “Energy Transitions,” In: C. Cleveland, Ed., Encyclopedia of Earth, Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC, 2008. www.eoearth.org/view/article/152561/
 N. Nakicenovic, J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. De Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grubler, T. Jung, T. Kram, E. La Rovere, L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher, L. Price, K. Raihi, A. Roehrl, H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. Van Rooijen, N. Victor and Z. Dadi, “IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES),” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, p. 595.
 R. Madlener and B. Alcott, “Energy Rebound and Economic Growth: A Review of the Main Issues and Research Needs,” Energy, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2009, pp. 370-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy. 2008.10.011
 S. Sorrell, “The Rebound Effect: An Assessment of the Evidence for Economy-Wide Energy Savings from Improved Energy Efficiency,” Sussex Energy Group for the Technology and Policy Assessment Function of the UK Energy Research Centre, London, 2007. http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/Downloads/ PDF/07/0710ReboundEffect/0710ReboundEffectReport.pdf