D. Russo, R. Minutolo, V. Iaccarino, M. Andreucci, A. Capuano and F. A. Savino, “Gross Hematuria of Un-common Origin: The Nutcracker Syndrome,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1998, p. E3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.1998.v32.pm10074588
 T. Scholbach, “From the Nutcracker-Phenomenon of the Left Renal Vein to the Midline Congestion Syndrome as a Cause of Migraine, Headache, Back and Abdominal Pain and Functional Disorders of Pelvic Organs,” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 68, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1318-1327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.mehy.2006.10.040
 J. T. Hobbs, “Varicose Vein Arising from the Pelvis Due to Ovarian Vein Incompetence,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. 59, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1195-1203. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1368-5031.2005.00631.x
 A. D. Liddle and A. H. Davies, “Pelvic Congestion Syndrome: Chronic Pelvic Pain Caused by Ovarian and Internal Iliac Varices,” Phlebology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2007, pp. 100-104. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1258/026835507780807248
 A. Ganeshan, S. Upponi, L. Q. Hon, M. C. Uthappa, D. R. Warakaulle and R. Uberoi, “Chronic Pelvic Pain Due to Pelvic Congestion Syndrome: The Role of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology,” Cardio Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1105-1111. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s00270-007-9160-0
 G. Asciutto, A. Mumme, B. Marpe, O. Koster, K. C. Asciutto and B. Geier. “MR Venography in the Detection of Pelvic Venous Congestion,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2008, pp. 491-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.06.024
 K. Sugaya, M. Miyazato, Y. Koyama, T. Hatano and Y. Ogawa, “Pelvic Congestion Syndrome Caused by Inferior Vena Cava Reflux,” International Journal of Urology, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2000, pp. 157-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-2042.2000.00157.x K. Masuda, T. Sekine, H. Toide, T. Doi and E. Toda, “Points of Diagnosis of Valve Diseases,” Japanese Journal of Medical Ultrasound Technology, Vol. 26, 2001, pp. 101-134.
 C. Y. Choong, V. M. Abascal, J. Weyman, R. A. Levine, F. Gentile, J. D. Thomas and A. E. Weyman, “Prevalence of Valvular Regurgitation by Doppler Echocardiography in Patients with Structurally Normal Hearts by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography,” American Heart Journal, Vol. 117, No. 3, 1989, pp. 636-642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(89)90739-4
 C. J. Lavie, K. Hebert and M. Cassidy, “Prevalence and Severity of Doppler-Detected Valvular Regurgitation and Estimation of Right-Sided Cardiac Pressure in Patients with Normal Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms,” Chest, Vol. 103, No. 1, 1993, pp. 226-231. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1378/chest.103.1.226
 K. Sugaya, E. Matsumura, S. Tasaki, R. Kimura, A. Kiyuna, S. Nishijima and K. Kadekawa, “Relationship between Urological Disease and Inferior Vena Cava Reflux on Color Doppler Ultrasonography,” LUTS, Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 94-98.
 G. D. Grossfeld, M. S. Litwin, J. S. Wolf Jr., H. Hricak, C. L. Shuler, D. C. Agerter and P. R. Carroll, “Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults: The American Urological Association Best Practice Policy-Part II: Patient Evaluation, Cytology, Voided Markers, Imaging, Cystoscopy, Nephrology Evaluation, and Follow-Up,” Urology, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2001, pp. 604-610.
 S. Nishijima, K. Sugaya, M. Miyazato and Y. Ogawa, “Effect of Gosha-Jinki-Gan, a Blended Herbal Medicine, on Bladder Activity in Rats,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 177, No. 2, 2007, pp. 762-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.077
 K. Sugaya, O. Nishizawa, H. Noto, K. Sato, K. Sato, N. Shimoda, R. Otomo and S. Tsuchida, “Effects of Tsumura Chorei-to and Tsumura Chorei-to-Go-Shimotsu-to on Patients with Urethral Syndrome,” Hinyokika Kiyo, Vol. 38, No. 6, 1992, pp. 731-735.
 K. Sugaya, S. Nishijima, M. Oda, M. Miyazato and Y. Ogawa, “Change of Blood Viscosity and Urinary Frequency by High Water Intake,” International Journal of Urology, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2007, pp. 470-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2042.2006.01734.x