FNS  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Dietary, Anthropometric, Biochemical and Psychiatric Indices in Shift Work Nurses
Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare nutrients intake, anthropometric, biochemical and psychiatric indices between shift working and day-time nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in which ninety eight female nurses (55 day-time workers and 43 shift workers) from six educational hospitals of Jondi-Shapour University of medical sciences, Ahvaz, Iran were participated. A questionnaire including dietary, anthropometric, disease history and lifestyle pattern questions was completed and 3-day 24-hour recalls, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected. Serum hs-CRP and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetric and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay method, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured according to World health organization standard protocol. Independent sample t and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a lower dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, magnesium and iron in shift worker compared with day-time nurses (p < 0.05). No significant differences in serum hs-CRP concentrations, serum 25(OH)D3 levels, vitamin D deficiency percentage, hemoglobin and hematocrite concentrations, and also anthropometric and psychiatric variables were found between two groups. Duration of exposure to sunlight was significantly higher in shift workers than in day time nurses. Engagement time in weekly physical exercise was around 11 times greater in day-time nurses compared with the shift work nurses (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that shift working is associated with some nutritional deficiencies and sedentary lifestyle among female nurses.
Cite this paper: M. Naghashpour, R. Amani, S. Nematpour and M. Haghighizadeh, "Dietary, Anthropometric, Biochemical and Psychiatric Indices in Shift Work Nurses," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1239-1246. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.412158.

[1]   A. M. Berger and B. B. Hobbs, “Impact of Shift Work on the Health and Safety of Nurses and Patients,” Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2006, pp. 465-471.

[2]   J. M. Zapka, S. C. Lemon, R. P. Magner and J. Hale, “Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight among Hospital-Based Nurses,” Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 17, No. 7, 2009, pp. 853-860.

[3]   A. N. Nasrabadi, H. Seif, M. Latifi, N. Rasoolzadeh and A. Emami, “Night Shift Work Experiences among Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Study,” International Nursing Review, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2009, pp. 498-503.

[4]   H. Wong, M. C. Wong, S. Y. Wong and A. Lee, “The Association between Shift Duty and Abnormal Eating Behavior among Nurses Working in a Major Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1021-1027.

[5]   Y. Morikawa, K. Miura, S. Sasaki, K. Yoshita, S. Yoneyama, M. Sakurai, M. Ishizaki, T. Kido, Y. Naruse, Y. Suwazono, M. Higashiyama and H. Nakagawa, “Evaluation of the Effects of Shift Work on Nutrient Intake: A Cross Sectional Study,” Journal of Occupational Health, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2008, pp. 270-278.

[6]   L. C. Antunes, R. Levandovski, G. Dantas, W. Caumo and M. P. Hidalgo, “Obesity and Shift Work: Chronobiological Aspects,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2010, pp. 155-168.

[7]   C. Thomas and C. Power, “Shift Work and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: A Study at Age 45 Years in the 1958 British Birth Cohort,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 5, 2010, pp. 305-314.

[8]   A. Knutsson, H. Andersson and U. Berglund, “Serum Lipoproteins in Day and Shift Workers: A Prospective Study,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1990, pp. 132-134.

[9]   “Inflammation, Heart Disease and Stroke,” American Heart Association, 2008.

[10]   M. K. Alimoglu and L. Donmez, “Daylight Exposure and the Other Predictors of Burnout among Nurses in a University Hospital,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2005, pp. 549-555.

[11]   S. R. Feldman, A. Liguori, M. Kucenic, S. R. Rapp, A. B. Fleischer Jr., W. Lang and M. Kaur, “Ultraviolet Exposure Is a Reinforcing Stimulus in Frequent Indoor Tanners,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2004, pp. 45-51.

[12]   A. Pan, L. Lu, O. H. Franco, Z. Yu, H. Li and X. Lin, “Association between Depressive Symptoms and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese,” Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 118, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 240-243.

[13]   W. J. Hoogendijk, P. Lips, M. G. Dik. D. J. Deeg, A. T. Beekman and B. W. Penninx, “Depression Is Associated with Decreased 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Increased Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Older Adults,” Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2008, pp. 508-512.

[14]   M. Naghashpour, R. Amani, S. Nematpour and M. H. Haghighizadeh. “Riboflavin Status and Its Association with Serum hs-CRP Levels among Clinical Nurses with Depression,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 340-347.

[15]   M. Ghiasvand, R. Heshmat, R. Golpira, V. Haghpanah, A. Soleimani, P. Shoushtarizadeh, S. M. Tavangar and B. Larijani, “Shift Working and Risk of Lipid Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 5, 2006, pp. 1-9.

[16]   H. Kaplan and B. Sadock, “Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry,” 12th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Willkins Ltd., USA, 2009, pp. 1047-1049.

[17]   A. S. Sigmond and P. Snaiphr, “The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 67, No. 6, 1983, pp. 361-370.

[18]   B. J. Bain, S. M. Lewis and I. Bates, “Basic Haematological Techniques,” In: S. M. Lewis, B. J. Bain and I. Bates Dacie, Eds., Practical Hematology, 10th Edition, Churchili Livingstone Elsevier Ltd., Philadelphia, 2006, p. 26.

[19]   B. Kusnierz-Cabala, W. Gernand, A. Zabek-Adamska, A. Tokarz and J. W. Naskalski,“ Comparison of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Serum Assay Results Obtained Using Dade-Behring BNII Nephelometer and Ortho Vitros FS 5.1 Clinical Analyzer in Respect of CRP-Related Risk Assessment of Chronic Metabolic Diseases,” Clinical Laboratory, Vol. 54, No. 9-10, 2008, pp. 341-346.

[20]   R. Heshmat, K. Mohammad, S. R. Majdzadeh, M. H. Forouzanfar, A. Bahrami, G. H. Ranjbar Omrani, I. Nabipour, R. Rajabian, A. Hossein-Nezhad, M. Rezaei Hemami, M. Pajouhi and B. Larijani, “Vitamin D Deficiency in Iran: A Multi-Center Study among Different Urban Areas,” Iranian Journal of Public Health, a Supplementary Issue on Osteoporosis and Bone Turnover, No. 1, 2008, pp. 72-78.

[21]   P. Lips, “Vitamin D Deficiency and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in the Elderly: Consequences for Bone Loss and Fractures and Therapeutic Implications,” Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2001, pp. 477-501.

[22]   World Health Organization (WHO), “Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry,” Tech Rep No. 854, 1995.

[23]   J. De Castro, “Socio-Cultural Determinants of Meal Size and Frequency,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 77, No. 4, 1997, pp. 39-55.

[24]   J. Waterhous, P. Buckley, B. Edwards and T. Reilly, “Measurements of, and Some Reasons for, Difference in Eating Habits between Night and Day Workers,” Chronobiology International, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2003, pp. 10751092.

[25]   N. Nikolova, S. Handjiev and K. Angelova, “Nutrition of Night and Shift Workers in Transports,” In: G. Costa, G. Cesana and K. Kogi, Eds., Shift Work: Health Sleep and Performance, Peter Lang Ltd., Frankfort, 1990, pp. 538547.

[26]   M. L. Gallager, “The Nutrients and Their Metabolism,” In: L. K. Mahan and S. Escott-Stump, Eds., Krausés Food & Nutrition Therapy, 12th Edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, 2008, pp. 74-78,84-86.

[27]   B. Karlsson, A. Knuttsson and B. Lindahl, “Is There an Association between Shift Work and Having a Metabolic syndrome? Results from a Population Based Study of 27485 People,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 58, No. 11, 2001, pp. 747-752.

[28]   K. R. Parkes, “Shift Work and Age as Interactive Predictors of Body Mass Index among Offshore Workers,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2002, pp. 64-71.

[29]   B. H. Karlsson, A. K. Knutsson, B. O. Lindahl and L. S. Alfredsson, “Metabolic Disturbances in Male Workers with Rotating Three-Shift Work. Results of the WOLF Study,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 76, No. 6, 2003, pp. 424-430.

[30]   I. Y. Yoon and B. G. Song, “Role of Morning Melatonin Administration and Attenuation of Sunlight Exposure in Improving Adaptation of Night-Shift Workers,” Chronobiology International, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2002, pp. 903-913.

[31]   S. Fullick, C. Grindey, B. Edwards, C. Morris, T. Reilly, D. Richardson, J. Waterhouse and G. Atkinson, “Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual Coping Strategies for Shift-Work,” Ergonomics, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2009, pp. 448-455.

[32]   E. Samaha, S. Lal, N. Samaha and J. Wyndham, “Psychological, Lifestyle and Coping Contributors to Chronic Fatigue in Shift-Worker Nurses,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2007, pp. 221-232.