FNS  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Development of Model Fermented Fish Sausage from Marine Species: A Pilot Physicochemical Study
Abstract: Marine fish, hoki (Macruronus novaezealandiae), kahawai (Arripis trutta) and trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) were used to develop fermented fish models to emulate Asian examples. The formulations comprised ground fish, carbohydrate, garlic and salt, but no added culture. The carbohydrate was cooked rice or glucose. The mixtures were extruded into open-ended 50 mL plastic syringes, sealed and incubated at 30℃ for 96 h. The syringe piston was progressively advanced to yield test samples. The endogenous lactic acid bacteria were capable of fermenting glucose, but not cooked rice. After glucose fermentation, the treatments contained around 8.7 log cfu·g-1 (from 3.3) with the pH range of 4.38 to 5.08 (from around 6.3), depending on the species. Hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of treatments all increased with fermentation, except for hoki, which was subject to an endogenous proteolytic activity. Color development varied with species: light reflectance (L*) of the trevally and kahawai treatments increased, while the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were static. Hoki exhibited the least color changes except for yellowness, which increased markedly. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Proteolysis was greatest for trevally. Lipid oxidation was least for hoki, notably the species with the lowest fat content. The trevally treatment generated the highest concentration of amines, but values were lower than reported for fermented fish sausage in Asia, possibly because of raw material hygiene status. The physiochemical outcomes indicated that trevally (as pieces unsuited for sale as fillets) would be best suited to this food product class. Suitable species could be identified in other fisheries.
Cite this paper: S. Khem, O. Young, J. Robertson and J. Brooks, "Development of Model Fermented Fish Sausage from Marine Species: A Pilot Physicochemical Study," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1229-1238. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.412157.

[1]   K. H. Steinkraus, “Classification of Fermented Foods: Worldwide Review of Household Fermentation Techniques,” Food Control, Vol. 8, No. 5-6, 1997, pp. 311317.

[2]   P. M. Davidson and T. M. Taylor, “Chemical Preservatives and Natural Antimicrobial Compounds,” In: M. P. Doyle, L. R. Beuchat and T. J. Montville, Eds., Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, ASM Press, Washington DC, 1997, pp. 520-556.

[3]   G. Campbell-Platt, “Fermented Foods of the World: A Dictionary and Guide,” Butterworths, Cambridge, 1987.

[4]   S. Riebroy, S. Benjakul, W. Visessanguan and M. Tanaka, “Changes during Fermentation and Properties of SomFug Produced from Different Marine Fish,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2007, pp. 751-770.

[5]   S. Riebroy, S. Benjakul and W. Visessanguan, “Properties and Acceptability of Som-Fug, a Thai Fermented Fish Mince, Inoculated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Starters,” Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2008, pp. 569-580.

[6]   S. Tanasupawat, S. Okada, K. Komagata, K. Suzuki and M. Kazaki, “Lactic Acid Bacteria, Particularly Heterofermentative Lactobacilli, Found in Fermented Foods in Thailand,” Bulletin Japan Federal Culture Collection, Vol. 9, 1993, pp. 65-78.

[7]   W. Visessanguan, S. Benjakul, S. Riebroy and P. Thepkasikul, “Changes in Composition and Functional Properties of Proteins and Their Contributions to Nham Characteristics,” Meat Science, Vol. 66, No. 3, 2004, pp. 579588.

[8]   S. Riebroy, S. Benjakul, W. Visessanguan, K. Kijrongrojana and M. Tanaka, “Some Characteristics of Commercial Som-Fug Produced in Thailand,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2004, pp. 527-535.

[9]   C. Paludan-Müller, R. Valyasevi, H. H. Huss and L. Gram, “Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Garlic-Fermenting Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Som-Fak, a Thai Low-Salt Fermented Fish Product,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2002, pp. 307-314.

[10]   R. S. Feldberg, S. C. Chang, A. N. Kotik, M. Nadler, Z. Neuwirth, D. C. Sundstorm and N. H. Thompson, “In Vitro Mechanism of Inhibition of Bacterial Cell Growth by Allicin,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 32, No. 12, 1988, pp. 1763-1768.

[11]   L. L. Zaika and J. C. Kissinger, “Fermentation Enhancement by Spices: Identification of Active Component,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1984, pp. 5-9.

[12]   C. Paludan-Müller, H. H. Huss and L. Gram, “Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Thai LowSalt Fermented Fish Product and the Role of Garlic as Substrate for Fermentation,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1999, pp. 219-229.

[13]   P. Saisithi, P. Youngmanitchai, P. Chimanage, C. Wongkhalaung, M. Boonyaratanakornkit and S. Maleehuan, “Improvement of a Thai Traditional Fermented Fish Product: Som-Fug,” Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Bangkok, 1986.

[14]   H. McGee, “On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen,” Scribner, New York, 2004.

[15]   G. A. MacDonald, B. I. Hall and P. Vlieg, “Seasonal Changes in Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae),” Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2002, pp. 35-51.

[16]   S. Sivakumaran, S. Martell and L. Huffman, “The Concise New Zealand Food Composition Tables,” 9th Edition, The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited and Ministry of Health, Palmerston North, 2012.

[17]   R. R. Brooks and D. Rumsey, “Heavy Metals in Some New Zealand Commercial Sea Fishes,” New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1974, pp. 155-166.

[18]   H. M. J. Seewald, DE NSTT 0FEZ Germany Patent, No. 06, Germany, 2008.

[19]   M. C. Bourne, “Texture Profile Analysis,” Food Technology, Vol. 32, No. 7, 1978, pp. 62-66.

[20]   A. O. A. C., “Official Methods of Analysis,” 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, 2000.

[21]   S. Benjakul, T. A. Seymour, M. T. Morrissey and H. An, “Physicochemical Changes in Pacific Whiting Muscle Proteins during Iced Storage,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 62, No. 4, 1997, pp. 729-733.

[22]   D. H. Green and J. K. Babbitt, “Control of Muscle Softening and Protease-Parasite Interactions in Arrowtooth Flounder Atheresthes Stomias,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 55, No. 2, 1990, pp. 579-580.

[23]   O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall, “Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent,” Biological Chemistry, Vol. 193, No. 1, 1951, pp. 256-275.

[24]   J. A. Buege and S. D. Aust, “Microsomal Lipid Peroxidation,” Methods of Enzymology, Vol. 52, 1978, pp. 302304.

[25]   J. H. Mah, H. K. Han, Y. J. Oh and M. G. Kim, “Biogenic Amines in Jeotkals, Korean Salted and Fermented Fish Products,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 79, No. 2, 2002, pp. 239-243.

[26]   B. Senoz, N. Isikli and N. Coksoyler, “Biogenic Amines in Turkish Sausages (Sucuks),” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2000, pp. 764-767.

[27]   M. H. S. Santos, “Biogenic Amines: Their Importance in Foods,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1996, pp. 213-231.

[28]   P. Mercier, L. Yerushalmi, D. Rouleau and D. Dochain, “Kinetics of Lactic Acid Fermentation on Glucose and Corn by Lactobacillus amylophilus,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 55, No. 2, 1992, pp. 111-121.

[29]   M. Huch, A. Hanak, I. Specht, C. M. Dortu, P. Thonart and S. Mbugua, “Use of Lactobacillus Strains to Start Cassava Fermentations for Gari Production,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 128, No. 2, 2008, pp. 258-267.

[30]   L. J. Yin, Y. L. Tong and S. T. Jiang, “Effect of Combining Proteolysis and Lactic Acid Bacterial Fermentation on the Characteristics of Minced Mackerel,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2005, pp. S186-S192.

[31]   Y. Hu, W. Xia and C. Ge, “Characterisation of Fermented silver Carp Sausages Inoculated with Mixed Starter Culture,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, Vol. 41, 2008, pp. 730-738.

[32]   H. A. Bremner and I. C. Hallett, “Muscle Fiber-Connective Tissue Junctions in the Fish Blue Grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae). A Scanning Electron Microscope Study,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1985, pp. 975-980.

[33]   O. A. Young and J. West, “Meat Color,” In: Y. H. Hui, W. K. Nip, R. W. Rogers and O. A. Young, Eds., Meat Science and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001, pp. 39-66.

[34]   W. D. Brown and L. B. Mebine, “Autoxidation of Oxymyoglobins,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 244, 1969, pp. 6696-6701.

[35]   M. L. Greaser, “Postmortem Muscle Chemistry,” In: Y. H. Hui, W. K. Nip, R. W. Rogers and O. A. Young, Eds., Meat Science and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001, pp. 21-35.

[36]   S. Riebroy, S. Benjakul, W. Visessanguan and M. Tanaka, “Physical Properties and Microstructure of Commercial Som-Fug, a Fermented Fish Sausage,” European Food Research Technology, Vol. 220, No. 5-6, 2005, pp. 520525.

[37]   J. W. Park, “Surimi and Surimi Seafood,” 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Florida, 2005.

[38]   C. Alvarez, I. Couso and M. Tejada, “Thermal Gel Degradation (Modori) in Sardine Surimi Gels,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 64, No. 4, 1999, pp. 633-637.

[39]   G. A. Macdonald, J. Lelievre and N. D. C. Wilson, “Strength of Gels Prepared from Washed and Unwashed Minces of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) Stored in Ice,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 55, No. 4, 1990, pp. 976-982.

[40]   P. Guenneugues and M. T. Morrissey, “Surimi Resources,” In: J. W. Park, Ed., Surimi and Surimi Seafood, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Florida, 2005, pp. 3-32.

[41]   R. Valyasevi and R. S. Rolle, “An Overview of SmallScale Food Fermentation Technologies in Developing Countries with Special Reference to Thailand: Scope for Their Improvement,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2002, pp. 231-239.

[42]   H. Neurath and R. L. Hill, “The Proteins,” 3rd Edition, Vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1979.

[43]   T. C. Lanier, P. Carvajal and J. Yongsawatdigul, “Surimi Gelation Chemistry,” In: J. W. Park, Ed., Surimi and Surimi Seafood, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Florida, 2005, pp. 436-489.

[44]   H. D. Belitz, W. Grosch and P. Schieberle, “Food Chemistry,” 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004.

[45]   M. R. Adams and M. J. R. Nout, “Fermentation and Food Safety,” Aspen Publishers, Maryland, 2001.

[46]   Food Standards Australia New Zealand, “Standard 2.2.3Fish and Fish Products,” Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra, 2011.