FNS  Vol.4 No.12 , December 2013
Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanins Present in the Skin of the Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus)
Abstract: The extraction of anthocyanins present in the skin of the dragon fruit was performed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) plus a mixture of methanol, acetic acid and water; the anthocyanins were then purified with a LC-18 cartridge, using methanol acidified with TFA as eluent, reaching concentrations of 44.3865 ± 1.3125 mg/100g of sample. The extracts were put through stability tests under different storage conditions, modifying the pH of the extracts (pH of 1, 4 and 6), the temperature (4℃, 25℃ and 68℃) and the absence and presence of light for a time period of 4 days; the tests indiated that anthocyanins remain more stable at a temperature of 4℃ with a pH of 4 in the absence of light, retaining up to 80% of the pigment. Three anthocyanins were partially identified in the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); they were: cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5 O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3,5 O-glucoside.
Cite this paper: M. Vargas, J. Cortez, E. Duch, A. Lizama and C. Méndez, "Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanins Present in the Skin of the Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus)," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1221-1228. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.412156.

[1]   G. Del Valle, A. González and R. Báez, “Antocianinas en Uva (Vitis vinifera) y su Relación con el Color,” Revista de Fitotecnología, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2005, pp. 359-368.

[2]   O. Anderson and G. Francis, “Techniques of Pigment Identification,” Annual Plant Reviews—Plant Pigments and Their Manipulation, Vol. 14, 2004, pp. 293-341.

[3]   G. Garzón, “Las Antocianinas como Colorantes Naturales y Compuestos Bioactivos,” Revisión. Acta Biol. Colombia, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2008, pp. 27-36.

[4]   J. Walford, “Developments in Food Colors,” Applied Science Publishers, London, 1980, pp. 116-142.

[5]   J. Gross, “Pigments in fruits,” Academic Press, London, 1987.

[6]   J. J. Macheix, A. Fleuriet and J. Billot, “Fruit Phenolics,” CRC Press, Florida, 1990, pp. 1-17,39-81,105-149.

[7]   R. E. Wrostald, R. W. Durst and J. Lee, “Tracking Color and Pigment Changes in Anthocyanin Products,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2005, pp. 423-428.

[8]   L. E. Rodriguez-Saona and R. E. Wrolstad, “Extraction, Isolation and Purification of Anthocyanins,” In: Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistral, John Wiley and sons, New York, 2001, pp. 1-11.

[9]   M. E. Cuevas, A. Antezana and P. Winterhalter, “Análisis y Caracterización de Antocianinas en Diferentes Variedades de Maíz (Zea mays) Boliviano,” In: Memorias Red-Alfa Lagrotech, Comunidad Europea, Cartagena, Colombia, 2008, pp. 79-95.

[10]   J. B. Harborne and R. J. Grayer., “The Anthocyanins,” In: Harborne Although the Hemical Structure of Anthocyanins. The flavonoids: Advances in Research since 1980, Chapman and Hall, London, 1988, pp. 1-20.

[11]   V. Hong and R. E. Wrolstad, “Use of HPLC Separation/ Photodiode Array Detection for Characterization of Anthocyanins,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1990, pp. 708-715.

[12]   A. Hagiwara, H. Yoshino, T. Ichiharam, M. Kawabe, S. Tamano, H. Aoki, T. Koda, M. Nakamura, K. Imaida, N. Ito and T. Shirai, “Prevention by Natural Food Anthocyanins, Purple Sweet Potato Color and Red Cabbage Color, of 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-B]Pyridine (Phip)-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Rats,” The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57-68.

[13]   F. Tristan, B. Kraft, B. M. Schmidt, G. G. Yousef, C. T. G. Knigh, M. Cuendet, Y. H. Kang, J. M. Pezzuto, D. S. Seigler and M. A. Lila, “Chemopreventive Potential of Wild Lowbush Blueberry Fruits in Multiple Stages of Carcinogenesis,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2005, pp. s159-s166.

[14]   J. Wang and G. Mazza, “Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins and Other Phenolic Compounds on Nitric Oxide Production in LPS/IFN Gamma-Activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2002, pp. 850-857.

[15]   R. Moyer, K. Hummer, Ch. Finn, B. Frei and R. Wrolstad, “Anthocyanins. Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in Diverse Small Fruits: Vaccinium, Rubus, and Ribes,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2002, pp. 519-525.

[16]   R. E. Wrolstad, “Anthocyanins,” In: Natural Food Colorants, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000, pp. 237-252.

[17]   B. A. Cevallos-Casals and L. Cisneros-Zeballos, “Stability of Anthocyanin Based Aqueous Extract of Andean Purple Corn and Red Fleshed Sweet Potato Compared to Synthetic and Natural Colorants,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2004, pp. 69-77.

[18]   H. Y. D. Ortiz, “Hacia el Conocimiento de la Conservación de la Pitahaya,” México, 2000, p. 124.

[19]   A. R. Centurión, S. Solís, V. C. Saucedo, S. R. Báez and E. Sauri, “Cambios Físicos, Químicos y Sensoriales en Frutos de Pitahaya (Hylocreus undatus) Durante su Desarrollo,” Fitotecnia Mexicana, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-5.

[20]   V. E. Chan, “Variación de Color y del Contenido de Pigmentos del Epicarpio de la Pitahaya (Hilocereus undatus),” Masters Thesis, Instituto Tecnológico de Mérida, México, 2006.

[21]   G. R. McGuire, “Reporting of Objective Color Measurements,” HortScience, Vol. 27, No. 12, 1992, pp. 12541255.

[22]   G. Pena, Y. Salinas and R. Ríos, “Contenido de Antocianinas Totales y Actividad Antioxidante en Frutos de Frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L.) con Diferentes Grados de Maduración,” Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2006, pp. 159-163.

[23]   M. G. Aguilera, C. L. Alanis, C. M. García and B. Hernández, “Caracterización y Estabilidad de Antocianinas de Higo, Variedad Mission,” Universidad y Ciencia, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2009, pp. 151-158.

[24]   C. Brenes, D. Pozo and S. Talcott, “Stability of Copigmented Anthocyanins and Ascorbic Acid in a Grape Juice Model System,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2005, pp. 49-56.

[25]   S. Talcott and J. Lee, “Ellagic Acid and Flavonoid Antioxidant Content of Muscadine Wine and Juice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 11, 2002, pp. 3186-3192.

[26]   A. Nerd, F. Gutman and Y. Mizrahi, “Ripening and Postharvest Behavior of Fruits of Two Hylocereus Species (Cactaceae),” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1999, pp. 39-45.

[27]   J. M. Anttonen and O. R. Karjalainen, “Environmental and Genetic Varation of Phenolic Compounds in Red Raspberry,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 8, 2005, pp. 759-769.

[28]   Y. Salinas, L. Herrera, S. Montes and P. Herrera, “Composición de Antocianinas en Variedades de Frijol Negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivadas en México,” Agrociencia, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2005, pp. 385-394.

[29]   T. Fuleki and F. J. Francis, “Quantitative Methods for Anthocyanins Extraction and Determination of Total Anthocyanins in cranberries,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1968, pp. 72-77.

[30]   J. Hutchings, “Food Color and Appearance,” Aspen Publishers, Washington DC, 1999.

[31]   G. Mazza, “Anthocyanin in Grapes and Grape Products,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1995, pp. 341-371.

[32]   O. Ugaz, “Colorantes Naturales,” Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú, 1997.

[33]   S. Badui, “Química de los Alimentos,” Pearson Educación, México, 2006.

[34]   C. F. Timberlake and B. S. Henry, “Plant Pigments as Natural Food Colours,” Endeavour NS, 1986, pp. 31-36.

[35]   R. Brouillard and B. Delaporte, “Chemistry of Anthocyanin Pigments. 2 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Proton Transfer, Hydration, and Tautometric Reactions of Malvidin 3-Glucoside,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 99, No. 26, 1977, pp. 8461-8468.

[36]   R. Brouillard, G. Mazza, Z. Saad, A. M. Albrecht-Gray and A. Cheminat, “The Copigmentation Reaction of Anthocyanins: A Microprobe for the Structural Study of Aqueous Solutions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 111, No. 7, 1989, pp. 2604-2610.

[37]   N. Palamadis and P. Markakis, “Stability of Grape Anthocyanin in a Carbonated Beverage,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 40, No. 5, 1975, pp. 1047-1049.

[38]   P. L. Buldini, S. Cavalli and J. L. Sharma, “Matrix Removal for the Ion Chromatographic Determination of Some Trace Elements in Milk,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2002, pp. 277-284.

[39]   S. Pascual-Teresa, J. C. Rivas and C. Santos, “Prodelphinidins and Related Flavanols in Wine,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2000, pp. 33-40.