J. S. Tolstrup, L. Kristiansen, U. Becker, et al., “Smoking and Risk of Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis among Women and Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 169, No. 6, 2009, pp. 603-609.
 D. Yadav, R. H. Hawes, R. E. Brand, et al., Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 169, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1035-1045.
 O. Sadr-Azodi, A. Andren-Sandberg, N. Orsini and A. Wolk, “Cigarette Smoking, Smoking Cessation and Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Population-Based Study,” Gut, Vol. 61, No. 2, 2012, pp. 262-267.
 P. Chowdhury, “An Exploratory Study on the Development of an Animal Model of Acute Pancreatitis Following Nicotine Exposure,” Tobacco Induced Diseases, Vol. 1, 2003, pp. 213-217.
 U. A. Wittel, K. K. Pandey, M. Andrianifahanana, et al., “Chronic Pancreatic Inflammation Induced by Environmental Tobacco Smoke Inhalation in Rats,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2006, pp. 148-159.
 M. D. Askari, M. S. Tsao, M. Cekanova, et al., “Ethanol and the Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen, NNK, Contribute to Signaling in Immortalized Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells,” Pancreas, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2006, pp. 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mpa.0000226883.55828.e9
 U. A. Wittel, A. P. Singh, B. J. Henley, et al., “Cigarette Smoke-Induced Differential Expression of the Genes Involved in Exocrine Function of the Rat Pancreas,” Pancreas, Vol. 33, 2006, pp. 364-370.
 H. A. Al-Wadei and H. M. Schuller, “Nicotinic Receptor-Associated Modulation of Stimulatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters in NNK-Induced Adenocarcinoma of the Lungs and Pancreas,” The Journal of Pathology, Vol. 218, No. 4, 2009, pp. 437-445.
 W. Hartwig, J. Werner, E. Ryschich, et al., “Cigarette Smoke Enhances Ethanol-Induced Pancreatic Injury,” Pancreas, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2000, pp. 272-278.
 N. Rioux and A. Castonguay, “4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone Modulation of Cytokine Release in U937 Human Macrophages,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, Vol. 49, 2001, pp. 663-670.
 N. Trushin, G. Leder, K. El-Bayoumy, et al., “The Tobacco Carcinogen NNK is Stereoselectively Reduced by Human Pancreatic Microsomes and Cytosols,” Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, Vol. 393, No. 4, 2008, pp. 571-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-007-0265-3
 A. Rivenson, D. Hoffmann, B. Prokopczyk, et al., “Induction of Lung and Exocrine Pancreas Tumors in F344 Rats by Tobacco-Specific and Areca-Derived N-Ni-trosamines,” Cancer Research, Vol. 48, No. 23, 1988, pp. 6912-6917.
 H. M. Schuller, “Nitrosamines as Nicotinic Receptor Ligands,” Life Sciences, Vol. 80, No. 24-25, 2007, pp. 2274-2280.
 S. S. Hecht, “Biochemistry, Biology, and Carcinogenicity of Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1998, pp. 559-603.
 Y. S. Ding, L. Zhang, R. B. Jain, et al., “Levels of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in Mainstream Smoke from Different Tobacco Varieties,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 17, 2008, pp. 3366-3371.
 K. E. Anderson, G. J. Hammons, F. F. Kadlubar, et al., “Metabolic Activation of Aromatic Amines by Human Pancreas,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 18, No., 1997, pp. 1085-1092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ carcin/18.5.1085
 P. Chowdhury and P. L. Rayford, “Smoking and Pancreatic Disorders,” European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol. 12, 2000, pp. 869-877.
 J. C. Mwenifumbo and R. F. Tyndale, “Molecular Genetics of Nicotine Metabolism,” Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 192, 2009, pp. 235-259.
 P. Chowdhury, S. MacLeod, K. B. Udupa, et al., “Pathophysiological Effects of Nicotine on the Pancreas: An Update,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 227, No. 7, 2002, pp. 445-454.
 P. Chowdhury, R. Doi, L. W. Chang, et al., “Tissue Distribution of [3H]-Nicotine in Rats,” Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1993, pp. 59-64.
 B. Prokopczyk, D. Hoffmann, M. Bologna, et al., “Identification of Tobacco-Derived Compounds in Human Pancreatic Juice,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2002, pp. 677-685.
 P. Chowdhury, R. Hosotani, L. Chang, et al., “Metabolic and Pathologic Effects of Nicotine on Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreas of Rats,” Pancreas, Vol. 5, 1990, pp. 222-229.
 P. Chowdhury, P. L. Rayford and L. W. Chang, “Induction of Pancreatic Acinar Pathology via Inhalation of Nicotine,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 201, No. 2, 1992, pp. 159164. http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/00379727-201-43494B
 P. Chowdhury, R. Hosotani and P. L. Rayford, “Inhibition of CCK or Carbachol-Stimulated Amylase Release by Nicotine,” Life Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 22, 1989, pp. 2163-2168.
 P. Chowdhury, P. L. Rayford and L. W. Chang, “Pathophysiological Effects of Nicotine on the Pancreas,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 218, No. 3, 1998, pp. 168-173.
 B. Lindkvist, N. Wierup, F. Sundler, et al., “Long-Term Nicotine Exposure Causes Increased Concentrations of Trypsinogens and Amylase in Pancreatic Extracts in the Rat,” Pancreas, Vol. 37, 2008, pp. 288-294.
 P. Chowdhury, C. Bose and K. B. Udupa, “Nicotine-Induced Proliferation of Isolated Rat Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Effect on Cell Signalling and Function,” Cell Proliferation, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2007, pp. 125-141.
 P. Chowdhury and K. B. Udupa, “Effect of Nicotine on Exocytotic Pancreatic Secretory Response: Role of Calcium Signaling,” Tobacco Induced Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2013, p. 1. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/1617-9625-11-1
 P. Chowdhury and A. Walker, “A Cell-Based Approach to Study Changes in the Pancreas Following Nicotine Exposure in an Animal Model of Injury,” Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, Vol. 393, No. 4, 2008, pp. 547-555.
 M. Alexandre, A. K. Uduman, S. Minervini, A. Raoof, C. A. Shugrue, E. O. Akinbiyi, V. Patel, M. Shitia, T. R. Kolodecik, R. Patton, F. S. Gorelick and E. C. Thrower, “Tobacco Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone Initiates and Enhances Pancreatitis Responses,” The American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 303, 2012, pp. G696-704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00138.2012
 H. M. Schuller, P. K. Tithof, M. Williams, et al., “The Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone is a Beta-Adrenergic Agonist and Stimulates DNA Synthesis in Lung Adenocarcinoma via Beta-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Release of Arachidonic Acid,” Cancer Research, Vol. 59, No. 18, 1999, pp. 4510-4515.
 A. Chaudhuri, T. R. Kolodecik and F. S. Gorelick, “Effects of Increased Intracellular cAMP on Carbacholstimulated Zymogen Activation, Secretion, and Injury in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell,” The American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 288, 2005, pp. G235-243.
 H. Friess, S. Shrikhande, E. Riesle, et al., “Phospholipase A2 Isoforms in Acute Pancreatitis,” Annals of Surgery, Vol. 233, No. 2, 2001, pp. 204-212.
 L. Ulloa, “The Vagus Nerve and the Nicotinic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, Vol. 4, No. 8, 2005, pp. 673-684.
 H. Wang, M. Yu, M. Ochani, et al., “Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha7 Subunit is an Essential Regulator of Inflammation,” Nature, Vol. 421, No. 6921, 2003, pp. 384-388. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1038/nature01339
 D. J. Van Westerloo, I. A. Giebelen, S. Florquin, M. J. Bruno, G. J. Larosa, L. Ulloa, K. J. Tracey and T. van der Poll, “The Vagus Nerve and Nicotinic Receptors Modulate Experimental Pancreatitis Severity in Mice,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 130, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1822-1830.
 J. B. Greer and D. C. Whitcomb, “Inflammation and Pancreatic Cancer: An Evidence Based Review,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2009, pp. 411-418.
 A. B. Lowenfels and P. Maisonneuve, “Environmental Factors and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer,” Pancreatology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-8.
 S. Raimondi, P. Maisonneuve, J. M. Lohr and A. B. Lowenfels, “Early Onset Pancreatic Cancer: Evidence of a Major Role for Smoking and Genetic Factors,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarks & Prevention, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1894-1897.
 A. S. Whittemore, R. S. Paffenbarger Jr., K. Anderson and J. Halpern, “Early Precursors of Pancreatic Cancer in College Men,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1983, pp. 251-256.
 S. Iodice, S. Gandini, P. Maisonneuve and A. B. Lowenfels, “Tobacco and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Review and Meta-Analysis,” Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, Vol. 393, No. 4, 2008, pp. 535-545.
 T. M. Mack, M. C. Yu, R. Hanisch and B. E. Henderson, “Pancreas Cancer and Smoking, Beverage Consumption, and Past Medical History,” Journal of National Cancer Institute, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1986, pp. 49-60.
 P. Maisonneuve and A. B. Lowenfels, “Epidemiology of Pancreatic Cancer: An Update,” Digestive Disease, Vol. 28, No. 4-5, 2010, pp. 645-656.
 M. A. Anderson, E. Zolotarevsky, K. L. Cooper, S. Sherman, O. Shats, D. C. Whitcomb, H. T. Lynch, P. Ghiorzo, W. S. Rubinstein, K. J. Vogel, A. R. Sasson, W. E. Grizzle, M. A. Ketcham, S. Y. Lee, D. Normolle, C. M. Plonka, A. N. Mertens, R. C. Tripon and R. E. Brand, “Alcohol and Tobacco Lower the Age of Presentation in Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer in a Dose-Dependent Manner: A Multicenter Study,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 107, No. 11, 2012, pp. 1730-1739.
 M. Porta, M. Crous-Bou, P. A. Wark, P. Vineis, F. X. Real, N. Malats and E. Kampman, “Cigarette Smoking and K-Ras Mutations in Pancreas, Lung and Colorectal Adenocarcinomas: Etiopathogenic Similarities, Differences and Paradoxes,” Mutation Research, Vol. 682, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 83-93.
 A. Blackford, G. Parmigiani, T. W. Kensler, et al., “Genetic Mutations Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Pancreatic Cancer,” Cancer Research, Vol. 69, No. 8, 2009, pp. 3681-3688.
 D. L. Weddle, P. Tithoff, M. Williams and H. M. Schuller, “Beta-Adrenergic Growth Regulation of Human Cancer Cell Lines Derived from Pancreatic Ductal Carcinomas,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2001, pp. 473-479.
 M. D. Askari, M. S. Tsao and H. M. Schuller, “The Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-Butanone Stimulates Proliferation of Immortalized Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelia through BetaAdrenergic Transactivation of EGF Receptors,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 131, No. 10, 2005, pp. 639-648.
 H. Yoshikawa, E. Hellstrom-Lindahl and V. Grill, “Evidence for Functional Nicotinic Receptors on Pancreatic Beta Cells,” Metabolism, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2005, pp. 247-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.metabol.2004.08.020
 C. H. Park, I. S. Lee, P. Grippo, S. J. Pandol, A. S. Gukovskaya and M. Edderkaoui, “Akt Kinase Mediates the Prosurvival Effect of Smoking Compounds in Pancreatic Ductal Cells,” Pancreas, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2013, pp. 655-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0b013e3182762928
 P. Dasgupta, W. Rizwani, S. Pillai, R. Kinkade, M. Kovacs, S. Rastogi, S. Banerjee, M. Carless, E. Kim, D. Coppola, E. Haura and S. Chellappan, “Nicotine Induces Cell Proliferation, Invasion and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in a Variety of Human Cancer Cell Lines,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 124, No. 1, 2009, pp. 36-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23894
 J. G. Trevino, S. Pillai, S. Kunigal, S. Singh, W. J. Fulp, B. A. Centeno and S. P. Chellappan, “Nicotine Induces Inhibitor of Differentiation-1 in a Src-Dependent Pathway Promoting Metastasis and Chemoresistance in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma,” Neoplasia, Vol. 14, No. 12, 2012, pp. 1102-1114.
 M. Alexandre, S. J. Pandol, F. S. Gorelick and E. C. Thrower, “The Emerging Role of Smoking in the Development of Pancreatitis,” Pancreatology, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2011, pp. 469-474. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1159/000332196
 M. A. Dubick, R. Palmer , P. P. Lau , P. R. Morrill and M. C. Geokas, “Altered Exocrine Pancreatic Function in Rats Treated with Nicotine,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 96, No. 1, 1988, pp. 132-139.
 P. P. Lau, M. A. Dubick, G. S. Yu, P. R. Morrill and M. C. Geokas, “Dynamic Changes of Pancreatic Structure and Function in Rats Treated Chronically with Nicotine,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 104, No. 3, 1990, pp. 457-465.
 M. Edderkaoui, P. Hong, E. C. Vaquero, J. K. Lee, L. Fischer, H. Friess, M. W. Buchler, M. M. Lerch, S. J. Pandol and A. S. Gukovskaya, “Extracellular Matrix Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Increases Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival through 5-Lipoxygenase and NADPH Oxidase,” American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 289, No. 6, 2005, pp. G1137-G1147.
 I. Esposito, M. Menicagli, N. Funel, F. Bergmann, U. Boggi, F. Mosca, G. Bevilacqua and D. Campani, “Inflammatory Cells Contribute to the Generation of an Angiogenic Phenotype in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2004, pp. 630-636. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1136/jcp.2003.014498
 B. Philip, C. L. Roland, J. Daniluk, Y. Liu, D. Chatterjee, S. B. Gomez, B. Ji, H. J. Huang, H. M. Wang, J. B. Fleming, C. D. Logsdon and Z. Cruz-Monserrate, “A High-Fat Diet Activates Oncogenic Kras and COX2 to Induce Development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Mice,” Gastroenterology, 2013. (in press)
 N. Momi, M. P. Ponnusamy, S. Kaur, S. Rachagani, S. S. Kunigal, S. Chellappan, M. M. Ouellette and S. K. Batra, “Nicotine/Cigarette Smoke Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer through α7nAChR-mediated MUC4 Upregulation,” Oncogene, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2013, pp. 1384-1395.
 I. G. Nicolov and I. N. Chernozemsky, “Tumors and hyperplastic lesions in Syrian Hamsters Following Transplacental and Neonatal Treatment with Cigarette Smoke Condensate,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Vol. 94, No. 3, 1979, pp. 249-256.