Back
 AJAC  Vol.4 No.11 , November 2013
Spectrophotometric Determination of Water-Soluble Hexavalent Chromium and Determination of Total Hexavalent Chromium Content of Portland Cement in the Presence of Iron (III) and Titanium (IV) Using Derivative Ratio Spectrophotometry
Abstract: A rapid, reliable and accurate method for the determination of hexavalent chromium in Portland cement is developed. The proposed method includes direct spectrophotometric determination of Cr (VI) in Portland cement with 1, 2, 5, 8 Tetrahydroxyanthraquinone, (Quinalizarin, QINZ) at pH 1.5. The European Directive (2003/53/EC) limits the use of cements so that it contains no more than 2 mg.Kg-1 of water-soluble Cr (VI). The absorbance at 565 nm due to Cr (VI)-QINZ complex is recommended for the determination of water-soluble Cr (VI) in Portland cement. The quantification of Cr (VI) released from cement when mixed with water is performed according to TRGS 613 (Technical Rules of Hazardous Substances). The validity of the method is thoroughly examined and the proposed method gives satisfactory results. A derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of total Cr (VI) in Portland cement in the presence of Fe (III) and Ti (IV). The hexavalent chromium complex formed at pH 1.5 allows precise and accurate determination of chromium (VI) over the concentration range 0.05 to 3.0 mg.L-1of chromium (VI). The validity of the method was examined by analyzing several Standard Reference Material (SRM) Portland cement samples. The MDL (at 95% confidence level) was found to be 25 ng/mL for chromium (VI) in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cement samples using the proposed method.
Cite this paper: K. Idriss, H. Sedaira and S. Dardeery, "Spectrophotometric Determination of Water-Soluble Hexavalent Chromium and Determination of Total Hexavalent Chromium Content of Portland Cement in the Presence of Iron (III) and Titanium (IV) Using Derivative Ratio Spectrophotometry," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 653-660. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.411078.
References

[1]   H. Sedaira, K. A. Idriss, M. M. Seleim and M. S. Abdel-Aziz, “Use of Quinizarin as a Spectrophotometric Reagent for MgO Content Analysis of Portland Cement and Cement Clinker,” Monatshefte für Chemie, Vol. 129, No. 1, 1998, pp. 49-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00010104

[2]   V. Ellis and S. Frecman, “Dermatitis Due to Chromate in Cement Part I. Chromate Content of Cement in Australia,” Australasian Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1986, pp. 86-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-0960.1986.tb00295.x

[3]   M. Frias and M. I. Sancher de Rojas, “Determination and Quantification of Total Chromium and Water Soluble Contents in Commercial Cements,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1995, pp. 433-439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(95)00029-1

[4]   J. Geier and A. Schnuch, “A Comparison of Contact Allergies among Construction and Nonconstruction Workers Attending Contact Dermatitis Clinics in Germany: Results of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology from November 1989 to July 1993,” American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1995, pp. 86-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1046-199X(95)90105-1

[5]   M. Bock, A. Schmidt, T. Bruckner and T. L. Dicpgen, “Occupational Skin Disease in the Construction Industry,” British Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 149, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1165-1171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2003.05748.x

[6]   S. S. Potgieter, N. Panichev, J. H. Potgieter and S. Panicheva, “Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in South African Cements and Cement-Related Materials with Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1589-1593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00132-7

[7]   L. Hills and V. Johansen, “PCA R & D Information,” Serial No. 2983, 2007.

[8]   W. A. Klemm, “Hexavalent Chromium in Portland Cement,” Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1994, pp. 43-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/CCA10560J

[9]   Directive 2003/53/EC.

[10]   W. A. Klemm, “PCA R & D Information,” Serial No. 2554, 2003.

[11]   Danish Standard Association, “Charlottenlund, DK-2920,” Denmark, Analyst 24, 1999.

[12]   USEPA, “SW 864, EPA Method 7195A,” 2003.

[13]   “ASTM D 1687, Am. Soc. for Testing and Materials,” West Conshokocken, Pennsylvinia, 2002, p. 167.

[14]   H. Sedaira, “Simultaneous Determination of Manganese and Zinc in Mixtures Using Firs-tand Second-Derivative Spectrophotometry,” Talanta, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2000, pp. 39-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(99)00244-1

[15]   A. Bhalotra and B. K. Puri, “Simultaneous First Derivative Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium and Nickel Using 2-(2-Thiazolylazo)-5-dimethylaminobenzoic Acid as an Analytical Reagent,” Microchimica Acta, Vol. 134, No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 139-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s006040070029

[16]   M. Benamor and N. Aguerssif, “Simultaneous Determination of Calcium and Magnesium by Derivative Spectrophotometry in Pharmaceutical Products,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2008, pp. 676-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2007.05.020

[17]   T. C. OˇHaver, “Derivative Spectroscopy and Its Applications in Analysis,” Analytical Proceedings, Vol. 19, 1982, pp. 22-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/ap9821900022

[18]   H. Ishii and K. Satoh, “Determination of Micro Amounts of Samarium and Europium by Analogue Derivative Spectrophotometry,” Fresenius’ Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie, Vol. 312, No. 2, 1982, pp. 114-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00467724

[19]   J. J. Berezas Nevada, C. G. Cabanillas and F. Salinas, “Spectrophotometric Resolution of Ternary Mixtures of Salicylaldehyde, 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde by the Derivative Ratio Spectrum-Zero Crossing Method,” Talanta, Vol. 39, No. 5, 1992, pp. 547-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(92)80179-H

[20]   H. Sediara, K. A. Idriss and M. S. Abdel-Aziz, “5-Chlorosalicylic Acid Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Titanium and Simultaneous Determination of Titanium (IV, Oxide and Iron) III, Oxide Content of Portland Cement,” Analyst, Vol. 121, 1996, pp. 1079-1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9962101079

[21]   K. A. Idriss, H. Sediara, M. S. Abdel-Aziz and H. M. Ahmed, “Rapid Test Methods for Minor Components Analysis of Hydraulic Cement. Spectrophotometric Determination of Manganese Oxide Content of Portland Cement and Cement Raw Meal,” Talanta, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1999, pp. 913-919.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(99)00175-7

[22]   K. A. Idriss, E. Y. Hashem, M. S. Abdel-Aziz and H. M. Ahmed, “Direct Spectrophotometric Determination of Aluminium Oxide in Portland Cement and Cement Clinker. AN insight into the Solution Equilibria and Analytical Aspects of the Aluminium-Quinizarin System,” Analyst, Vol. 125, 2000, pp. 221-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a906307b

[23]   K. A. Idriss, H. Sediara and H. M. Ahmed, “An Insight into the Solution Equilibria of Magnesium II, with Purpurin and Spectrophotometric Determination of Magnesium,” Talanta, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2001, pp. 369-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(00)00674-3

[24]   K. A. Idriss, H. Sediara and S. S. Ahmed, “Determination of Strontium and Simultaneous Determination of Strontium Oxide, Magnesium Oxide and Calcium Oxide Content of Portland Cement by Derivative Ratio Spectrophotometry,” Talanta, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2009, pp. 81-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.10.044

[25]   “The Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances,” TRGS 613, 2002.

[26]   A. Vogel, “Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis,” 5th Edition, ELBS, London, 1988.

[27]   NIST, “Certificate of Analysis, SRMs, 1880b, 1885a,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 1989.

[28]   P. Voznica, J. Havel and L. Sommer, Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, Vol. 45, 1980, p. 54.

[29]   K. A. Idriss, M. Saleh, M. Abu-Bakr and H. Sedaira, “Spectrophotometric Study of the Complexation Equilibria of Zirconium IV, with 1-Amino-4-hydroxyanthraquinone and the Determination of Zirconium,” Analyst, Vol. 113, No. 11, 1988, pp. 1643-1647.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9881301643

 
 
Top