JMMCE  Vol.1 No.6 , November 2013
The Effects of Blends of Enugu Coal and Anthracite on Tin Smelting Using Nigerian Dogo Na Hauwa Cassiterite
ABSTRACT
The effects of blending Enugu coal and anthracite on tin smelting using Nigerian Dogo Na Hauwa cassiterite have been studied. The work utilized various blends ranging from 100% to 0% anthracite. The content of the Enugu coal in the blend varied from 5% to 100%. The various tin metal recovery percentage for each batch of smelting using various blends was noted. Anthracite alone had the highest recovery of 71.90% followed by 5% blend of Enugu with anthracite. The result, however, showed that as the Enugu Coal was increased in the blend, the recovery was also decreasing. This equally affected the quality of tin metal recovered by increasing the grade. The work recommended that since the cost of production is the critical issue, 5% - 15% range of Enugu Coal should be used in preparing blends to bring down the cost of imported anthracite which is put at $906.69 per ton. The use of 15% Enugu coal will result in lowering the cost of imported anthracite by $136.0.

Cite this paper
F. Ayeni, O. Alabi and R. Okara, "The Effects of Blends of Enugu Coal and Anthracite on Tin Smelting Using Nigerian Dogo Na Hauwa Cassiterite," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 6, 2013, pp. 343-346. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.16052.
References
[1]   O. O. Alabi, “Potentials of Using Blends of Anthracite/ Enugu Coal and coke/Enugu coal for Smelting of a Nigerian Cassiterite Concentrate,” M.Sc. (Met.Eng) Thesis, ABU Zaria, 2010, pp. 7-14.

[2]   A. P. Ihom, S. A. Abel, J Ogbodo and M. Ambayin, “The Challenges of the Metallurgical and Materials Industries in the 21st Century Nigeria: The Energy Problem,” NMS Paper for Annual General Conference, 2010, pp. 1-7.

[3]   O. P. Gupta, “Element of Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories,” 2nd Reprint, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2008, pp. 23-70.

[4]   R. H. Tupkary and V. R. Tupkary, “An Introduction to Modern Iron Making,” 5th Reprint, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2007, pp. 48-85.

[5]   G. Usman, “Research Effect at National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos,” Proceedings of the Nigerian Metallurgical Society Annual General Conference/AGM, Abuja, 1999, pp. 4-10.

[6]   P. A. Wright, “Extractive Metallurgy of Tin,” 2nd Edition, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 93-98.

[7]   L. T. Grandfield and P. G. Forester, “Properties of Tin Alloys,” Tin Research Institution Publication, Greenford, 1972, p. 155.

[8]   Makeri Smelting Company, “Makeri Processing Booklet and Magazine,” Unpublished, 1979, pp. 1-20.

[9]   O. P. Khanna, “Material Science and Metallurgy,” 3rd Reprint, Dhanpat Rai Publications, New Delhi, 2008, pp. 33-1-33-7.

[10]   2009. http://enWikipedia.org/wiki/coke/fuel

[11]   2008. http://www.lme.co.uk/dataprice_daily_mineral.asp

 
 
Top