SS  Vol.4 No.11 , November 2013
In Vitro Mitigation of Pathogenic Bacteria and Virulence Factors Using a Hydroconductive Dressing

Wound infections can have devastating effects on healing as well as the health of the patient. Complications increase when the pathogens are capable of producing virulence factors and/or are drug resistant. Novel methods are needed to take on the challenges of treating such wounds. Drawtex® dressing is purported to have hydroconductive properties that allow it to draw away debris and exudate from the wound into the dressing. The goal of this work is to better define these interactions of this experimental dressing with bacteria and virulence factors. Two series of in vitro experiments were performed. First, pieces of experimental dressing were submerged in a series of cultures in flasks and samples of the dressing and cultures were taken over 90 minutes and assayed for bacteria and virulence factor levels. Second, experimental or standard care (control) dressings were placed on selective agar plated with pathogens of interest. Dressings and the agar covered by them were used to quantify bacteria and virulence factors over time. The experimental dressing took up both bacteria and virulence factors to a larger extent than the control dressing. Experimental dressing significantly reduced the load of bacteria and virulence factors in cultures compared to control culture without dressing. Based on the ability of the dressing to take up bacteria and virulence factors in this study, the data point to the potential for this dressing to be similarly effective in reducing or eliminating pathogen from wounds, potentially increasing the chances of successful wound healing.

Cite this paper
L. Moffatt, R. Ortiz, B. Carney, R. Bullock, M. Robson, M. Jordan and J. Shupp, "In Vitro Mitigation of Pathogenic Bacteria and Virulence Factors Using a Hydroconductive Dressing," Surgical Science, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 477-485. doi: 10.4236/ss.2013.411094.

[1]   J. R. Ebright, “Microbiology of Chronic Leg and Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Significance and Implications for Treatment,” The Nursing Clinics of North America, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2005, pp. 207-216.

[2]   C. E. Black and J. W. Costerton, “Current Concepts Regarding the Effect of Wound Microbial Ecology and Biofilms on Wound Healing,” The Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 90, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1147-1160.

[3]   G. Schiavo and F. G. van der Goot, “The Bacterial Toxin Toolkit,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2001, pp. 530-537.

[4]   M. Otto, “Basis of Virulence in Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Annual Review of Microbiology, Vol. 64, 2010, pp. 143-162. micro.112408.134309

[5]   M. Li, et al., “Evolution of Virulence in Epidemic Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 106, No. 14, 2009, pp. 5883-5888.

[6]   I. Pastar, et al., “Interactions of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Polymicrobial Wound Infection,” PloS One, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2013, p. e56846.

[7]   V. S. Nikbin, et al., “Molecular Identification and Detection of Virulence Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Different Infectious Origins,” Iranian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012, pp. 118-123.

[8]   R. El Fertas-Aissani, et al., “Virulence Profiles and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Different Clinical Specimens,” Pathologie-Biologie, 2012.

[9]   P. M. Schlievert, “Cytolysins, Superantigens, and Pneumonia Due to Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 200, No. 5, 2009, pp. 676-678.

[10]   J. M. Yarwood, D. Y. Leung and P. M. Schlievert, “Evidence for the Involvement of Bacterial Superantigens in Psoriasis, Atopic Dermatitis, and Kawasaki Syndrome,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 192, No. 1, 2000, pp. 1-7.

[11]   S. Bi, et al., “The Cellular and Molecular Immune Response of the Weanling Piglet to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B,” Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood), Vol. 234, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1305-1315.

[12]   P. M. Schlievert and J. A. Kelly, “Clindamycin-Induced Suppression of Toxic-Shock Syndrome—Associated Exotoxin Production,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 149, No. 3, 1984, p. 471.

[13]   J. W. Shupp, et al., “Treatment with an Oxazolidinone Antibiotic Inhibits Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 Production in MRSA-Infected Burn Wounds,” Journal of burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2013, pp. 267-273. BCR.0b013e318280e35a

[14]   A. Lansdown, et al., “Silver Dressings: Absorption and Antibacterial Efficacy,” Nursing Times, Vol. 101, No. 46, 2005, pp. 45-46.

[15]   P. Aramwit, et al., “In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness and Moisture Binding Properties of Wound Dressings,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 8, 2010, pp. 2864-2874.

[16]   M. Robson, “Innovations for Wound Bed Preparation: The Role of Drawtex Hydroconductive Dressings,” Proceedings of a Symposium of Investigators, Tampa, 4 May 2012.