Back
 APE  Vol.3 No.4 , November 2013
The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort
Abstract: Physical Education is often viewed as the place where Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) are developed. These skills underpin the development of motor competence and perceived competence, therefore impacting on participation and physical literacy. Within education, Gifted and Talented (G & T) and inclusion agendas have been high profile yet research has shown that children across the world are not reaching expected levels of skill mastery at primary level (5 - 11 years). The aim of the research was therefore to investigate the levels of mastery at secondary level (11 - 16 years) and within a G & T cohort to establish their levels of mastery, and investigate how this may relate to their participation in physical activities. Forty five children, 19 years 9 pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) and 26 G & T pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) were evaluated performing a combination locomotor, manipulative (object control) and balance skills (n = 5). 5 trials of each skill were recorded and graded against the performance criteria by one experimenter. Mastery or near mastery were only achieved, if, in 4 out of the 5 trials, 5 of the 6 component criteria were present. If this was not attained non-mastery was designated. Results revealed that the G & T pupils had greater overall mastery of the 5 skills, however they did not master all skills. All G & T had significantly increased jumping and throwing skills, and males significantly increased kicking skills. In both groups the majority of participation outside the school curriculum was related to games activities and was dominated by invasion games however no males participated in “aesthetic” activity outside school. These results indicate that development of FMS may not be occurring in children at KS3 and there is both an invasion games bias and a gender bias in the activities accessed out of school.
Cite this paper: Griffiths, G. & Billard, R. (2013). The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort. Advances in Physical Education, 3, 215-220. doi: 10.4236/ape.2013.34035.
References

[1]   Bailey, R., Tan, J. E. C., & Morley, D. (2004). Talented pupils in physical education: A national survey of policy and practice in England. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14, 59-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17408980701712007

[2]   Bailey, R. (2006). Physical Education and Sport in Schools: A review of benefits and outcomes. Journal of School Health, 76, 397-401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00132.x

[3]   Barnett, L., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P. J., Lyndon, O., & Beard, J. R. (2010). Gender differences in motor skill proficiency from childhood to adolescence. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, 162-170.

[4]   Barnett, L., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P. J., Lincoln, D., Zask, A., & Beard, J. (2009). Interrater objectivity for field-based fundamental motor skill assessment. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 363-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2009.10599571

[5]   Booth, M. L., Okely, T., McLellan, L., Phongsavan, P., Macaskill, P., Patterson, J., Wright, J., & Holland, B. (1999). Mastery of fundamental motor skills among New south wales school students: Prevalence and sociodemographic distribution. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2, 93-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80189-3

[6]   Booth, M., Okely, A. D., Denney-Wilson, E., Hardy, L., Yang, B., & Dobbins, T. (2006). NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey (SPANS). Sydney, Australia: NSW Department of Health.

[7]   Breslin, G., Murphy, M., McKee, D., Delaney, B., & Dempster (2012). The effects of teachers trained in a fundamental movement skills programme on children’s self-perceptions and motor competence. European Physical Education Review, 18, 114-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356336X11430657

[8]   Clarke, J. E. (2007). On the problem of motor skill development. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 78, 39-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2007.10598023

[9]   Croston, A. (2012). “A clear and obvious ability to perform physical activity”: Revisiting physical education teachers’ perceptions of talent in PE and sport. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18, 60-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2011.631001

[10]   DCMS (2000). A sporting future for all. London, UK: Department for Culture, Media & Sport.

[11]   DCMS (2004). The talented athlete scholarship scheme. London, UK: Department for Culture, Media & Sport.

[12]   DCMS & Sport/Strategy Unit (2002). Game plan: A strategy for delivering government’s sport and physical activity objectives. London, UK: Department for Culture, Media & Sport/Strategy Unit.

[13]   DCSF (2007). Effective provision for gifted and talented students in secondary education. London, UK: Department for Children, Schools and Families.

[14]   DCSF/DCMS (2008). The Physical Education and school sport strategy for young people. London, UK: Department for Children, Schools and Families/Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

[15]   DES/WO (1992). Physical education in the national curriculum. London, UK: Department of Education and Science/Welsh Office.

[16]   DET (1992). Policy and implementation strategies for the education of gifted and talented students. State of NSW, Australia: Department of Education and Training, Curriculum K-12.

[17]   DET (2000). Get skilled: Get active. A K-6 resource to support the teaching of fundamental movement skills State of NSW. Australia: Department of Education and Training.

[18]   DfEE (2000) Excellence in Cities; Report March 1999-September 2000. London, UK: Department for Education and Employment.

[19]   DfES/DCMS (2003). The national strategy for physical education, school sport and club links (PESSCL). Learning through PE and sport. London, UK: Department for Education and Skills/Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

[20]   DoE (1993). National Excellence: A case for developing America’s Talent. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

[21]   DoE (1996). Fundamental Motor Skills: A Manual for Classroom Teachers. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Education.

[22]   DoE (2013). Physical Education: Programmes of study for Key Stages 1-4. A consultation document. London, UK: Department for Education.

[23]   Foweather, L., McWhannell, N., Henaghan, J., Lees, A., Stratton, G., & Batterham, A. (2008) Effect of a 9-wk. after-school multiskill’s club on fundamental movement skill proficiency in 8 to 9 yr old children: an exploratory trial. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 106, 745-754.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.106.3.745-754

[24]   Gallahue, D., & Cleland-Donnelly, F. (2007). Developmental physical education for all children (4th ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[25]   Gallahue, D. L., & Ozmun, J. C. (2006). Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults (6th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[26]   Hardy, L. A., Kingl, Farrell, L., Macniven, R., & Howlett, S. (2010). Fundamental movement skills among australian preschool children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 503-508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.05.010

[27]   Kirk, D. (2005). Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: the importance of early learning experience. European Physical Education Review, 11, 239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356336X05056649

[28]   Kirk, D. (2013). What is the future for physical education in the twentyfirst century? In S. Capel, & M. Whitehead (Eds.), Debates in physical education (pp. 220-231). Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge.

[29]   Koshy, V., Pinheiro-Torres, C., & Portman-Smith, C. (2010). The landscape of gifted and talented education in england and wales: How are teachers implementing policy? Research Papers in Education, 27, 167-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2010.509514

[30]   Knudson, V., & Morrison, S. (2002). Qualitative analysis of human movement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[31]   Lemos, G. A., Avigo, E. L., & Barela, J. A. (2012) Physical education in kindergarten promotes fundamental movement skills. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 17-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ape.2012.21003

[32]   Okley, A. D., & Booth, M. L. (2000). The development and validation of an instrument to assess children’s fundamental movement skill ability. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress Sports Medicine and Physical Education Internal Congress on Sport Science, Brisbane, Australia.

[33]   Okely, A. D., Booth, M. L., & Patterson, J. W. (2001) Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1899-1904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200111000-00015

[34]   Okley, A. D., & Booth, M. L. (2004). Mastery of fundamental movement skills among children in new south wales: prevalence and sociodemographic distribution. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 358-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80031-8

[35]   Scott, M. A., Williams, M. A., & Horn, R. R. (2003). The co-ordination of kicking techniques in children. In G. Savelsbergh, K. Davids, J. van der Kamp, & S. J. Bennett (Eds.), Development of movement co-ordination in children:Applications in the Fields of Ergonomics, Health Sciences and Sport (pp. 241-250). London: Routledge.

[36]   Stodden, D. F., Goodway, J. D., Langendorfer, S. J., Roberton, M. A., Rudisill, M. E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L. E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60, 290-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

[37]   Stratton, G., McWhannell, N., Foweather, L., Henaghan, J., Graves, L., Ridgers, N. D., & Hepples, J. (2009) The A-CLASS project research findings: Summary Report. Liverpoo, UK: Sportslinx.

[38]   van Beurden, E., Zask, A., Barnett, L., & Dietrich, U. (2002) Fundamental movement skills—How do primary school children perform? The “Move it Groove it” program in rural Australia. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 53, 244-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(02)80010-X

[39]   van Beurden, E., Barnett, L. M., Zask, A,. Dietrich, U. C., Brooks, L. O., & Beard, J. (2003). Can we skill and activate children through primary school physical education lessons? Preventive Medicine, 36, 493-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-7435(02)00044-0

[40]   Whitehead, M. E. (2001). The concept of physical literacy. European Journal of Physical Education, 2, 127-138.

[41]   Whitehead, M. E. (2010). Physical literacy: Throughout the lifecourse. Abingdon. Oxford: Routledge.

[42]   Whitehead, M. E. (2013). What is physical literacy and how does it impact on physical education? In S. Capel, & M. Whitehead (Eds.), Debates in Physical Education (pp. 37-52). Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge.

[43]   Williams, G. (2008). Gifted and talented in physical education… or is it sport? Physical Education Matters, 3, 19-22.

 
 
Top