AASoci  Vol.3 No.7 , November 2013
Understanding the Linkages of Household Environmental Deprivation, Asset Index and Child Survival in India
Author(s) Bidyadhar Dehury
Often the household environmental factors are combined with the household assets in explaining the economic differentials in population and health parameters of developing countries. Though the utility of wealth index (that combines household environment with assets) in explaining health and health care utilization is established, its utility as a proxy of economic measures is contested. In this paper we attempted to differentiate the role of household environmental factors and the household assets in explaining the infant mortality (IMR) and the under-five mortality (U5MR) in India. We hypothesize that there are no significant differences in IMR and U5MR among those households residing in poor household environmental condition and those who are poor in asset in India. We have used the data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005-06, India, a population based large scale representative survey. Bi-variate analyses, principal component analysis, life-table technique and hazard model are used in the analyses. Two composite indices namely, an asset index based on consumer durables of the households and household environmental deprivation index based on the household environmental factors are constructed. The indices are categorized as poor and non-poor based on the 50% of the median composite score. Result shows that the correlation coefficient of asset index and household environmental deprivation index is weak. Further, there are no significant differences of IMR and U5MR among households living in poor household environment and those are poor in asset cutting across the states. Results of cox-proportional hazard model indicate that the household environmental factors have significant impact on child survival. It calls for improving the household environmental conditions of the household in promoting child survival in India.

Cite this paper
Dehury, B. (2013). Understanding the Linkages of Household Environmental Deprivation, Asset Index and Child Survival in India. Advances in Applied Sociology, 3, 289-300. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.37037.
[1]   Anderson, B. A., Romani, J. H., Phillips, H. E., & Zyl, J. A. V. (2002). Environment, access to health care, and other factors affecting infant and child survival among the African and colored populations of South Africa, 1989-94. Population and Environment, 23, 349-364.

[2]   Ayad, M., Barrere, B., & Otto, J. (1997). Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households. Demographic and Health Surveys, 26, Calverton, MD: Macro International.

[3]   Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Johnson, H. L., Lawn, J. E., Rudan, I., Bassani, D. G. et al. (2010). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: A systematic analysis. Lancet, 375, 1969-1987.

[4]   Boschi-Pinto, C., Velebitb, L., & Shibuya, K. (2008). Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86, 710-717.

[5]   Cheng, J. J., Schuster-Wallace, C. J., Watt, S., Newbold, B. K., & Mente, A. (2012). An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality. Environmental Health, 11, 4.

[6]   Fink, G., Gunther, I., & Hill, K. (2011). The effect of water and sanitation on child health: evidence from the demographic and health surveys 1986-2007. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 11961204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyr102

[7]   Folasade, I. B. (2000). Environmental factors, situation of women and child mortality in south western Nigeria. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 1473-1489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00047-2

[8]   Hoque, B. A., Chakraborty, J., Chowdhury, J. T. A. et al. (1999). Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: A case control study. Public Health, 113, 57-64.

[9]   International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International (2007). National Family Health Survey (NFHS III), 2005-06, India. Mumbai: IIPS.

[10]   Kembo, J., & Ginneken, J. K. V. (2009). Determinants of infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: Results of multivariate hazard analysis. Demographic Research, 21, 367-384.

[11]   Lawn, J. E., Tinker, A., Mridha, M. K., & Anwar, I. (2006). Where is maternal and child health now? Lancet, 368, 1474-1477.

[12]   Mohanty, S. K. (2009). Alternative wealth indices and health estimates in India. Genus, 2, 113-137.

[13]   Muhuri, P. K. (1996). Estimating seasonality effects on child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Demography, 33, 98-110.

[14]   Mutunga, C. J. (2007). Environmental determinants of child mortality in Kenya. United Nations University. Research Paper No. 2007/83.

[15]   Pruss, A., Kay, D., Fewtrell, L., & Bartram, J. (2002). Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level. Environmental Health Perspective, 110, 537-542.

[16]   Pruss-Ustun, A., Bos, R., Gore, F., & Bartram, J. (2008). Safer water, better health: Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

[17]   Ram, F., Mohanty, S. K., & Ram, U. (2008). Progress and prospects of millennium development goals in India. IIPS, Mumbai.

[18]   Sastry, N. (1996). Community based characteristics, individual and household attributes, and child survival in Brazil. Demography, 33, 211-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061873

[19]   Srivastava, A., & Mohanty, S. K. (2010). Economic proxies, household consumption and Health estimates. Economic and Political Weekly, 16, 55-63.

[20]   WHO (2007). Indoor air pollution: National burden of disease estimates.

[21]   You, D., Wardlaw, T., Salama, P., & Jones, G. (2010). Levels and trends in under-5 mortality, 1990-2008. Lancet, 375, 100-103.