Investigation on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of the Compositionally Modified PZT Ceramics Prepared by Mixed-Oxide Method

Author(s)
Malika Abba,
Ahmed Boutarfaia,
Zelikha Necira,
Noura Abdessalem,
Hayet Menasra,
Abdelhek Meklid

Affiliation(s)

Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Science Matter, University of Biskra, Biskra, Algeria.

Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Science Matter, University of Biskra, Biskra, Algeria.

ABSTRACT

The structural and electrical properties of Pb[Zr_{x}Ti_{0}_{.95-x}(Mo_{1/3}In_{2/3})_{0.05}]O_{3} piezoelectric ceramics system with the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary were investigated as a function of the Zr/Ti ratio. Studies were performed on the samples prepared by the conventional method of thermal synthesis of mixed oxides. The materials structure was investigated by X-ray diffractometry to demonstrate the co-existence of the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. In the present system, the MPB, in which the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases coexist, is in a composition range of 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 0.50. The lattice constants of the a and c axes for the samples were calculated from the XRD patterns. Microstructure of the sintered ceramics was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of free surfaces specimens. The relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation, piezoelectric coefficient and electromechanical coupling factor reach at maximum value x = 0.49 (*ε _{r}* = 7300.345 (at the Curie temperature), tan

Cite this paper

M. Abba, A. Boutarfaia, Z. Necira, N. Abdessalem, H. Menasra and A. Meklid, "Investigation on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of the Compositionally Modified PZT Ceramics Prepared by Mixed-Oxide Method,"*Materials Sciences and Applications*, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 723-729. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.411091.

M. Abba, A. Boutarfaia, Z. Necira, N. Abdessalem, H. Menasra and A. Meklid, "Investigation on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of the Compositionally Modified PZT Ceramics Prepared by Mixed-Oxide Method,"

References

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[14] J. S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, D. C. Lee and K. Uchino, “Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Fe2O3-Doped 0.57Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.43PbTiO3 Ceramic Materials,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 38, 1999, pp. 1433-1437.

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[25] W. Hammer and M. J. Hoffmann, “Detailed X-Ray Diffraction Analyses and Correlation of Microstructural and Electromechanical Properties of La-Doped PZT Ceramics,” Journal of Electroceramics, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 75-84.

[26] B. Jaff, W. R. Cook and H. Jaff, “Piezoelectric Ceramics,”Acadimic Press, London, 1971.

[27] B. D. Cullity, “Elements of X-Ray Diffraction,” AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1978.

[28] A. Boutarfaia, “Investigation of Co-Existence Region in Lead Zirconate Titanate Solid Solutions: X-Ray Diffraction Studies,” Ceramics International, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2000, pp. 583-587.

[29] A. Boutarfaia, “Study of Solid State Reaction and the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Fe1/5, Ni1/5,Sb3/5)O3 Ceramics,” Ceramics International, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2001, pp. 91-97.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-8842(00)00047-X

[30] T. Senda and R. C. Bradt, “Grain Growth in Sintered ZnO and ZnO-Bi2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 73, 1990, pp. 106-114.

[31] J. C. Maxwell, “Electricity and Magnetism,” Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

[32] K. W. Wagner, Annals of Physics, Vol. 40, 1993, p. 818.

[33] C. G. Koops, “On the Dispersion of Resistivity and Dielectric Constant of Some Semiconductors at Audiofrequencies,” Physical Review, Vol. 83, 1951, pp. 121-124.

[34] S. Upadhyay and D. Omprakash, “Effect of Composition on Dielectric and Electrical Properties of the

Sr1-xLaxTi1-xCoxO3 System,” Bulletin of Materials Science, Vol. 19, 1996, pp. 513-525.

[1] T. Ezaki, S. Manuspiya, P. Moses, K. Uchino and V. Caraz, “Piezoelectric Transformers for a High Power Module,” Journal of Materials Technology, Vol. 79, No. 19, 2004, pp. 79-82.

[2] B. Jaffe, W. R. Cook and H. Jaffe, “Piezoelectric Ceramics,” Academic Press, New York, 1971.

[3] K. Uchino, “Piezoelectric Actuators 2008: Key Factors for Commercialization,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 55-57, 2008, pp. 1-9.

[4] J. Valasek, “Piezoelectric and Allied Phenomena in Rochelle Salt,” Physical Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1921, pp. 475-481.

[5] B. Wul, L. M. Goldman and C. R. Acad Sci, URSS, Vol. 46, 1945, p. 123.

[6] S. Pilgrim, M. Audrey, E. Sutherland and E. R. Winzer, “Diffuseness as a Useful Parameter for Relaxer Ceramics,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 73, No. 10, 1990, pp. 3122-3125.

[7] S. Miga and K. Wojcik, “Investigation of the Diffuse Phase Transition in PLZT X/65/35 Ceramics, X = 7 10,” Ferroelectrics, Vol. 100, No. 1, 1989, pp. 167-173.

[8] K. L. Yadav, R. N. P. Choudhary and T. K. Chaki, “Structural, SEM and Dielectric Properties of PLZT,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 27, No. 19, 1992, pp. 5244-5246.

[9] G. H. Heartling, “PLZT Electroopic Materials and Applications,” Ferroelectrics, Vol. 75, 1987, pp. 25-55.

[10] L. Ramji, S. C. Sharma and D. Rajiv, “Piezoelectric Characteristics of Spray-Dried PZT Ceramics Modified by Isovalent, Supervalent and Subvalent Substitutions,” Ferroelectrics, Vol. 100, 1989, pp. 43-55.

[11] G. H. Heartling, “Piezoelectric and Electrooptic Ceramics,” In: R. C. Buchanan, Ed., Ceramics Materials for Electronics, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991, pp. 139-225.

[12] H. I. Chae, Y. S. Shin, K. J. Lim, H. D. Bae and D. W. Shin, “Vibration Level Dependence of Piezoelectric Constant in PT-PZ-PCN System Ceramic,” Proceedings of the 4th Internationnal Conference on Properties of Applied Dielectrics and Materials, Brisbane, 3-8 July 1994, pp. 17-20.

[13] L. Wu, C. K. Liang and C. F. Shieu, “Piezoelectric Properties of (Pb, Sr) (Zr, Ti, Mn, Zn, Nb)O3 Piezoelectric Ceramic,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 26, 1991, pp. 4439-4444.

[14] J. S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. J. Kim, D. C. Lee and K. Uchino, “Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Fe2O3-Doped 0.57Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.43PbTiO3 Ceramic Materials,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 38, 1999, pp. 1433-1437.

[15] D. J. Lee, S. S. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, K. J. Lim, S. G. Park, H. H. Kim and T. Y. Lim, “The Piezoelectric Characteristics of PZ-PT-PMS Ceramics with Addition of CeO2 for Large Displacement Application,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectric, Vlisterris, 22-25 June 1998, pp. 381-384.

[16] X. H. Zhu and Z. Y. Meng, “The Influence of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary on the Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of the PNN-PZ-PT Ternary System,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 31, 1996, pp. 2171-2175.

[17] X. B. Guo, H. Y. Chen and Z. Y. Meng, The American Ceramic Society 103rd Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, 2000.

[18] S. Tashiro, M. Ikehiro and H. Igarashi, “Influence of Temperature Rise and Vibration Level on Electromechanical Properties of High-Power Piezoelectric Ceramics,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 36, 1997, pp. 30043009.

[19] IEEE Standard on Piezoelectricity, “IEEE Standard 176-1978,” Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1978.

[20] M. Abba, Z. Necira, N. Abdessalem and A. Bouterfaia, “Contribution to the Study of the Coexistence of Phases Tetragonal-Rhombohedral in Ceramic type PZT and General Form: Pb[ZrxTi0,95-x(Mo1/3In2/3)0.05]O3,” EPJ Web of Conferences, Vol. 29, 2012.

[21] G. H. Haerding and C. E. Land, Soc, Vol. 45, 1974, pp. 1-11.

[22] T. Kala, “Study of the Influence of Manganese and Lanthanum Oxides on the Band Structure of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3,” Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 73, 1982, pp. 573-578.

[23] K. Kakegawa and J. Mohri, “A Compositional Fluctuation and Properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3,” Solid State Communicationgs, Vol. 24, No. 11, 1977, pp. 769-772.

[24] K. Kakegawa, J. Mohri, X. Shrasaki and K. Takahaashi, “Sluggish Pansition between Tetragonal and RhomboHedral Phases of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 65, 1982, pp. 515-519.

[25] W. Hammer and M. J. Hoffmann, “Detailed X-Ray Diffraction Analyses and Correlation of Microstructural and Electromechanical Properties of La-Doped PZT Ceramics,” Journal of Electroceramics, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 75-84.

[26] B. Jaff, W. R. Cook and H. Jaff, “Piezoelectric Ceramics,”Acadimic Press, London, 1971.

[27] B. D. Cullity, “Elements of X-Ray Diffraction,” AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1978.

[28] A. Boutarfaia, “Investigation of Co-Existence Region in Lead Zirconate Titanate Solid Solutions: X-Ray Diffraction Studies,” Ceramics International, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2000, pp. 583-587.

[29] A. Boutarfaia, “Study of Solid State Reaction and the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Fe1/5, Ni1/5,Sb3/5)O3 Ceramics,” Ceramics International, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2001, pp. 91-97.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-8842(00)00047-X

[30] T. Senda and R. C. Bradt, “Grain Growth in Sintered ZnO and ZnO-Bi2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 73, 1990, pp. 106-114.

[31] J. C. Maxwell, “Electricity and Magnetism,” Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

[32] K. W. Wagner, Annals of Physics, Vol. 40, 1993, p. 818.

[33] C. G. Koops, “On the Dispersion of Resistivity and Dielectric Constant of Some Semiconductors at Audiofrequencies,” Physical Review, Vol. 83, 1951, pp. 121-124.

[34] S. Upadhyay and D. Omprakash, “Effect of Composition on Dielectric and Electrical Properties of the

Sr1-xLaxTi1-xCoxO3 System,” Bulletin of Materials Science, Vol. 19, 1996, pp. 513-525.