OJAnes  Vol.3 No.9 , November 2013
Balance of Concerns: Satisfactory Pre-Anesthetic Patient Education and the Extent of Patient Worries
Abstract: Controversy exists whether or not patient’s concerns regarding anesthetics can be reduced by face-to-face pre-assessment with an anesthetist. Thus we were looking at concerns patients had before and after such a consultation. Patient satisfaction was rated by a validated questionnaire. A four-staged Likert-scale was used to quantify the extent of patients concerns. The totaling 461 patients were overall highly satisfied. 448 patients had “nil” to “minimal” concerns. After the assessment, 106 patients stated their concerns had been lessened (p < 0.001). Having gone through the anesthetic pre-assessment center, 99.1% of all patients reported no considerable concerns regarding anesthetics whatsoever. A high level of patient satisfaction does not constitute a low level of concerns patients may hold over anesthetics, although a pre-operative consultation mitigated these concerns by 23%, whilst for 9% of all patients this pre-assessment led to a higher level of concerns.
Cite this paper: J. Schnoor, U. Reuter, N. Engelmann and U. Burkhardt, "Balance of Concerns: Satisfactory Pre-Anesthetic Patient Education and the Extent of Patient Worries," Open Journal of Anesthesiology, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2013, pp. 402-407. doi: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.39085.

[1]   P. Herschbach, “The ‘Well-being paradox’ in Quailty-of-Life Research,” Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, 2002, pp. 141-150.

[2]   M. Bauer, H. Böhrer, G. Aichele, A. Bach and E. Martin, “Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Anaesthesia: Perioperative Questionnaire versus Standardised Face-to-Face Interview,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2001, pp. 65-72.

[3]   K. Pokharel, B. Battharei, M. Tripathi, S. Khatiwada and A. Subedi, “Nepalese Patient’s Anxiety and Concerns before Surgery,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 23, No 5, 2011, pp. 372-378.

[4]   A. R. Braun, K. Leslie, C. Morgan and S. Bugler, “Patients’ Knowledge of the Qualifications and Roles of Anaesthetists,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2007, pp. 570-574.

[5]   C. H. Kindler, L. Szirt, D. Sommer, R. Höusler and W. Langewitz, “A Quantitative Analysis of Anaesthetist-Patient Communication during the Pre-Operative Visit,” Anaesthesia, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2005, pp. 53-59.

[6]   M. Mitchell, “General Anaesthesia and Day-Case Patient Anxiety,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 66, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1059-1071.

[7]   E. Lam, M. Lee, R. Brull and D. T. Wong, “Effect of Anesthesia Consultation on Patients’ Preoperative Concerns,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 54, No. 10, 2007, pp. 852-853.

[8]   M. Yilmaz, H. Sezer, H. Gürler and M. Bekar, “Predictors of Preoperative Anxiety in Surgical Inpatients,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 21, No. 7-8, 2012, pp. 956-964.

[9]   P. Mavridou, V. Dimitriou, A. Manataki, E. Arnaoutoglou and G. Papadopoulos, “Patient’s Anxiety and Fear of Anesthesia: Effect of Gender, Age, Education, and Previous Experience of Anesthesia. A Survey of 400 Patients,” Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013, pp. 104-108.

[10]   T. Löwer, C. Krier and A. Henn-Beilharz, “Der Einfluss des Prämedikationsgesprächs auf das Preoperative Angstverhalten des Patienten,” Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedmedizin, Notfallmedmedizin, Schmerzthertherapie, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1993, pp. 121-126.

[11]   R. Likert, “A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes,” Archives of Scientific Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 140, 1932, pp. 5-53.

[12]   J. Schmidt, F. Lamprecht and W.W. Wittmann, “Satisfaction with Inpatient Management. Development of a Questionnaire and Initial Validity Studies,” Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1989, pp. 248-255.

[13]   E. Brähler, J. Schumacher and B. Strauß, “Diagnostische Verfahren in der Psychotherapie, Hogrefe,” Hogrefe Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Göttingen, 2002.

[14]   C. C. Attkisson and R. Zwick, “The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Psychometric Properties and Correlations with Service Utilization and Psychotherapy Outcome,” Evaluation and Program Planning, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1982, pp. 233-237.

[15]   H. Reinecker, “Sorgen-Angst-Furcht. Definition, Ursache, Formen, Sorgenprophylaxe,” 2013.,%20Angst,%20Furcht.pdf

[16]   C. K. Hofer, M. T. Ganter, L. Furrer, G. Guthauser, R. Klaghofer and A. Zollinger, “Patients’ Needs and Expectations Regarding Anaesthesia. A Survey on the Pre-Anaesthetic Visit of Patients and Anaesthesiologists,” Anaesthesist, Vol. 53, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1061-1068.

[17]   W. Caumo, A. P. Schmidt, C. N. Schneider, J. Bergmann, C. W. Iwamoto, L. C. Adamatti, D. Bandeira and M. B. Ferreira, “Risk Factors for Postoperative Anxiety in Adults,” Anaesthesia, Vol. 56, No. 8, 2001, pp. 720-728.

[18]   A. Perks, S. Chakravarti and P. Manninen, “Preoperative Anxiety in Neurosurgical Patients,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2009, pp. 127-130.

[19]   J. J. Nightingale, J. A. Lack, J. F. Stubbing and J. Reed, “The Pre-Operative Anaesthetic Visit. Its Value to the Patient and the Anaesthetist,” Anaesthesia, Vol. 47, No. 9, 1992, pp. 801-803.

[20]   C. Soltner, J. A. Giquello, C. Monrigal-Martin and L. Beydon, “Continuous Care and Empathic Anaesthesiologist Attitude in the Preoperative Period: Impact on Patient Anxiety and Satisfaction,” The British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 106, No. 5, 2011, pp. 680-686.

[21]   M. A. Kalkhoran and M. Karimollahi, “Religiousness and Preoperative Anxiety: A Correlational Study,” Annals of General Psychiatry, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1-5.

[22]   E. Twiss, J. Seaver and R. McCaffrey, “The Effect of Music Listening on Older Adults Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery,” Nursing in Critical Care, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2006, pp. 224-231.

[23]   A. Agarwal, R. Ranjan, S. Dhiraaj, A. Lakra, M. Kumar and U. Singh, “Acupressure for Prevention of Pre-Operative Anxiety: A Prospective, Randomised, Placebo Controlled Study,” Anaesthesia, Vol. 60, No. 10, 2005, pp. 978-981.

[24]   E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith, “Journeys from Childhood to Midlife: Risk, Resilience, and Recovery,” Cornell University Press, New York, 2001.

[25]   E. E. Werner, “Journeys from Childhood to Midlife: Risk, Resilience, and Recovery,” Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 2, 2004, p. 492.

[26]   H. Aust, L. H. Eberhart, G. Kalmus, M. Zoremba and D. Rüsch, “Relevance of Five Core Aspects of the Pre-Anesthesia Visit: Results of a Patient Survey,” Anaesthesist, Vol. 60, No. 5, 2011, pp. 414-420.

[27]   J. H. Schiff, S. Frankenhauser, M. Pritsch, S. A. Fornaschon, S. A. Snyder-Ramos, C. Heal, K. Schmidt, E. Martin, B. W. Böttiger and J. Motsch, “The Anesthesia Preoperative Evaluation Clinic (APEC): A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Impact on Consultation Time, Direct Costs, Patient Education and Satisfaction with Anesthesia Care,” Minerva Anestesiologica, Vol. 76, No. 7, 2010, pp. 491-499.

[28]   S. F. Barnett, P. K. Alagar, M. P. Grocott, S. Giannaris, J. R. Dick and S. R. Moonesinghe, “Patient-Satisfaction Measures in Anesthesia: Qualitative Systematic Review,” Anesthesiology, Vol. 119, No. 2, 2013, pp. 452-478.

[29]   K. I. van der Zee, R. C. Gallandat Huet, C. Cazemir and K. Evers, “The Influence of the Premedication Consult and Preparatory Information about Anesthesia on Anxiety among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery,” Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2002, pp. 123-133.