APE  Vol.3 No.4 , November 2013
Reliability, Validity and Minimal Detectable Change of a New Multi-Change of Directionagility Test for Soccer Players
ABSTRACT

This study examined the test-retest reliability, validity and external responsiveness of a new multi-change of direction agility test (NMAT) designed for soccer players. Forty-four Tunisian soccer players were recruited and were divided into two groups according to their playing levels (International, n = 21 and National, n = 23). Following familiarization, athletes performed squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), running speed test (5 m and 20 m), 15-m agility run (Agility-15 m), 15-m ball dribbling (Ball-15 m), and NMAT and ball dribbling NMAT (Ball-NMAT) in 2 sessions, 48 h apart. The intraclass correlation coef?cient and SEM values were .96 (CI 95%: .94 - .98) and .05 seconds for NMAT and .97 (CI 95%: .94 - .98) and .09 seconds for Ball-NMAT, respectively. The smallest worthwhile changes were greater than their SEM for both NMAT and Ball-NMAT. The MDC95 values were .15 seconds and .25 seconds for NMAT and Ball-NMAT, respectively. Both NMAT and Ball-NMAT were respectively correlated with Agility-15 m (r = .78; p < .001) and Ball-15 m (r = .81; p < .001). Similarly, signi?cant correlations were observed between both NMAT and Ball-NMAT and leg power and straight sprint (.01 < p < .001). International-level soccer players were better than national-level in all tests including NMAT and Ball-NMAT (.01 < p < .001). The areas under their receiver operator characteristics curve were > .7 (.85; CI 95%: .71 - .94 and .91; CI 95%: .78 - .97 for NMAT and Ball-NMAT, respectively). These results indicated that NMAT provides excellent absolute and relative reliabilities. The NMAT can distinguish soccer athletes of different competitive levels. Thus, the NMAT may be suitable for field assessment of specific agility of soccer players.


Cite this paper
Brahim, M. , Bougatfa, R. & Amri, M. (2013). Reliability, Validity and Minimal Detectable Change of a New Multi-Change of Directionagility Test for Soccer Players. Advances in Physical Education, 3, 190-196. doi: 10.4236/ape.2013.34031.
References
[1]   Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 217-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199826040-00002

[2]   Beckerman, H., Roebroeck, M. E., Ankhorst, G. J., Becher, J. G, Bezemer, P. D., & Verbek, A. L. (2001). Smallest real difference, a link between reproducibility and responsiveness. Journal of Quality of Life Research, 1, 571-578.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013138911638

[3]   Beekhuizen, K. S., Davis, M. D., Kolber, M. J., & Cheng, M. S. (2009). Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the hexagon agility test. Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 23, 2167-2171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b439f0

[4]   Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1995). Comparing two methods of clinical measurements: A personal history. International Journal of Epidemiology, 24, 7-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/24.Supplement_1.S7

[5]   Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., Levin, G., & Chaouachi, A. (2008). Understanding change of directionability in sport: A review of resistance training studies. Sports Medicine, 38, 1045-1063.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838120-00007

[6]   Cooper, S. M., Baker, J. S., Tong, R. J., Roberts, E., & Hanford, M. (2005). The repeatability and criterion related validity of the 20 m multistage fitness test as a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in active young men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 19-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.013078

[7]   Dawson, B., Hopkinson, R., Appleby, B., Stewart, G., & Roberts, C. (2004). Player movement patterns and game activities in the Australian football league. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 278-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80023-9

[8]   De Vet, H. C., Bouter, L. M., Bezemer, P. D., & Beurskens, A. J. (2001). Reproducibility and responsiveness of evaluative outcome measures. Theoretical considerations illustrated by an empirical example. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 17, 479-487.

[9]   Ellis, L., Gastin, P., Lawrence, S., Savage, B., Buckeridge, A., Stapff, A., Tumilty, D., Quinn, A., Woolford, S., & Young, W. (2000). Protocols for the physiological assessment of team sports players. In C. J. Gore (Ed.), Physiological tests for elite athletes (pp. 128-144). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

[10]   Gabbett, T., & Benton, D. (2009). Reactive agility of rugby league players. Journal of Scienceand Medicine inSport, 12, 212-214.

[11]   Gabbett, T. J. (2009). Physiological and anthropometric correlates of tackling ability in rugbyleague players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 540-548.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818efe8b

[12]   Hachana Y., Chaabène, H., Nabli, M. A., Attia, A., Moualhi, J., Farhat, N., & Elloumi, M. (2013). Test-retest reliability, criterion related validity and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182890ac3

[13]   Haj Sassi, R., Dardouri, W., Gharbi, Z., Chaouachi, A., Mansour, H., Rabhi, A., & Haj Yahmed, M. (2011). Reliability and validity of a newrepeated agility test as a measure of anaerobic and explosive power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25, 472-480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182018186

[14]   Haj-Sassi, R., Dardouri, W., Haj Yahmed, M., Gmada, N., Mahfoudhi, M. E., & Gharbi, Z. (2009). Relative and absolute reliability of a modified agility T-test and its relationship withvertical jump and straight sprint. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 1644-1651.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b425d2

[15]   Harman, E., Garhammer, J., & Pandorf, C. (2000). Administration, scoring, and interpretation of selected tests. In T. R. Baechle, & R. W. Earle (Eds.), Essentials of strength training and conditioning (pp. 287-317). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

[16]   Hasegawa, H., Dziados, J., Newton, R. U., Fry, A. C., Kraemer, W. J., & Hakkinen, K. (2002) Periodized training programs for athletes. In W. J. H. Kraemer (Ed.), Strength training for sport (pp. 69-134). Ames: Blackwell Science.

[17]   Hopkins, W. G. (2000). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 3, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030010-00001

[18]   Hopkins, W. G. (2005) A new view on statistics: Log transformation.
http://sportsci.org/resource/stats/index.html/Log

[19]   Impellizzeri, F. M., & Marcora, S. M. (2009). Test validation in sport physiology: Lessons learned from clinimetrics. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4, 269-277.

[20]   Jones, P., Bampouras, T. M., & Marrin, K. (2009). An investigation into the physical determinants of change of direction speed. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 49, 97-104.

[21]   Liow, D. K., & Hopkins, W. G. (2003). Velocity specificity of weight training for kayak sprint performance. Medicine and Sciences in Sports Exercise, 35, 1232-1237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000074450.97188.CF

[22]   Mannion, A. F., Elfering, A., Staerkle, R., Junge, A., Grob, D., Semmer, N. K., Jacobshagen, N., Dvorak, J., & Boos, N. (2005). Outcome assessment in low back pain: how low can you go? European Spine Journal, 14, 1014-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-005-0911-9

[23]   Marcovic, G. (2007). Poor relationship between strength and power qualities and agility performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 47, 276-283.

[24]   Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., & Bangsbo, J. (2005). Fatigue in soccer: A brief review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 593-599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021286

[25]   Reilly, T., Williams, A. M., Nevill, A., & Franks, A. (2000). A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 695-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120078

[26]   Reilly, T., Bangsbo, J., & Franks, A. (2000). Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 669-683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120050

[27]   Sheppard, J. M., Young, W. B., Doyle, T. L. A., Sheppard, T. A., & Newton, R. U. (2006). An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9, 342-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.019

[28]   Sheppard, J. M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24, 919-932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457109

[29]   Stolen, T., Chamari, K., Castagna, C., & Wisloff, U. (2005). Physiology of soccer: An update. Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 501-536.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535060-00004

[30]   Thomas, J. R., & Nelson, J. K. (2001). Research methods in physical activity (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[31]   Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M., & Williams, A. M. (2007). Mechanisms underpinning successful decision making in skilled youth soccer players: An analysis of visual search behaviors. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39, 395-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.5.395-408

[32]   Vincent, W. J. (1995). Statistics in Kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[33]   Webb, P., & Lander, J. (1983). An economical fitness testing battery for high school and college rugby teams. Sports Coach, 7, 44-46.

[34]   Williams, A. M., Davids, K., Burwitz, L., & Williams, J. G. (1994). Visual search strategies in experienced and inexperienced soccer players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 127-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10607607

[35]   Williams, A. M. (2000). Perceptual skill in soccer: Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 737-705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120113

[36]   Young, W. B., James, B., & Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 282-288.

[37]   Young, W. B., Hawken, M., & McDonald, L. (1996). Relationship between speed, agility, and strength qualities in Australian Rules football. Strength Conditioning Coach, 4, 3-6.

 
 
Top