MRI  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2013
Studies of lead toxicity on inflammatory damage and innate immune functions in testicular macrophages of male Swiss albino mice
Abstract: Immune infertility has gained impetus in recent years. Various scientific studies have been carried out on the toxic effects of lead on immune function; however, uncertainties still persist. The present study addresses the immunomodulatory effects of testicular macrophages caused due to lead exposure (in-vivo). In mice, lead has a primary effect on the testes, and acts at all levels of the reproductive as well as the testicular immune response. The study was undertaken to investigate the effects of lead acetate on immune system in Swiss albino mice and the underlying mechanism of pro-inflammatory cytokine action. The immunomodulatory effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. Testicular macrophage dysfunctions by lead was studied by calculating morphological alteration and associated cell functions of innate immunity followed by estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α). The present work shows that lead is responsible for a significant morphological alteration, reducing cell function in testicular macrophages probably by increasing oxidative damage whereas increase in TNF-α release was also observed which increased inflammation. Results demonstrated that lead intoxication leads to increase in pro-inflammatory response. TNF-α is probably unable to bind with the surface receptor in testicular macrophages because of altered morphology which reduces cell function and ultimately causes reproductive dysfunction.
Cite this paper: Barbhuiya, S. , Chakraborty, S. and Sengupta, M. (2013) Studies of lead toxicity on inflammatory damage and innate immune functions in testicular macrophages of male Swiss albino mice. Modern Research in Inflammation, 2, 75-81. doi: 10.4236/mri.2013.24010.

[1]   Florea, A.M. and Busselberg, D. (2006) Occurrence use and potential toxic effects of metals and metal compounds. Biometals, 19, 419-427.

[2]   Patrick, L. (2006) Lead toxicity part II. The role of free radical damage and the use of antioxidants in the pathology and treatment of lead toxicity. Alternative Medicine Review, 11, 114-127.

[3]   Marchlewicz, M., Proteasouicki, M., Rozewicka, L., Piasecka, M. and LaszeZynska, M. (1993) Effects of longterm exposure of lead on testis and epididymis in rats. Folia-Histochemica et Cytobiologica, 31, 55-62.

[4]   Sengupta, M. and Bishayi, B. (2002) Effect of lead and arsenic on murine macrophage response. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 25, 459-472.

[5]   Bishayi, B., Sengupta, M. and Ghosh, S. (2004) Lead induced modulation of splenic macrophage responses on humoral and cell mediated immunity. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 51, 31-45.

[6]   Zheng, W., Aschmer, M. and Ghersi-Eger, J.M. (2003) Brain Barrier systems: A new frontier in metal neurotoxicological research. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 192, 1-11. 10.1016/S0041-008X(03)00251-5

[7]   Zheng, W., Aschner, M. and Ghersi-Egea, J.F. (2003) Brain barrier systems: A new frontier in metal neurotoxilologyical research. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 192, 1-11. 10.1016/S0041-008X(03)00251-5

[8]   Hsu, P.C., Hsu, C.C., Liu, M.Y., Chen, L.Y. and Guo, Y.L. (1998) Lead induced changes in spermatozoa function and metabolism. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 55, 45-64.

[9]   Hsu, P.C., Liu, M.Y., Hsu, C.C., Chen, L.Y. and Guo, L. (1997) Lead exposure causes generation of reactive oxygen species and functional impairment in rat sperm. Toxicology, 122, 133-143.

[10]   Thoreux-Manlay, A., Le Goascogne, C., Segretain, D., Jégou, B. and Pinon-Lataillade, G. (1995) Lead affects steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology, 103, 53-62.

[11]   Corpas, I., Castillo, M., Marquina, D. and Benito, M.J. (2002) Lead intoxication in gestational and lactation periods alters the development of male reproductive organs. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 53, 259-266.

[12]   Ronis, M.J.J., Badger, T.M., Shema, S., Roberson, P.K. and Shaikh, F. (1996) Reproductive toxicity and growth effects in rats exposed to lead at different periods during development. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 136, 361-371.

[13]   Sikorski, E.E., Burns, L.A., Stern, M.L., Luster, M.I. and Munson, A.E. (1991) Splenic cell targets in gallium arsenide-induced suppression of the primary antibody response. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 110, 129-142.

[14]   Yao, L., Berman, J.W., Factor, S.M. and Lowy, F.D. (1997) Correlation of histopathologic and bacteriologic changes with cytokine expression in experimental murine model of bacteremic Staphylococcus aureus infection. Infection and Immunity, 65, 3889-3895.

[15]   Qu, J., Condliffe, M.A., Lawson, M., Plevin, R.J. and Chlivers, E. (1997) Lack of effect of recombinant platelet derived growth factor on human neutrophil function. The Journal of Immunology, 159, 2952-2959.

[16]   Dey, S. (1993) A new rapid air drying technique for scanning electron microscopy using tetramethylsilane. Application to mammalian tissue. Cytobiology, 73, 17-23.

[17]   Dey, S., Basu Baul, T.S., Roy, B. and Dey, D. (1989) A new rapid method of air-drying for scanning electron microscopy using tetramethylsilane. Journal of Microscopy, 156, 2259-2261.

[18]   Czuprynski, C.J., Henson, P.M. and Campbell, P.A. (1984) Killing of Listeria monocytogenes by inflammatory neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes from immune and non immune mice. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 35, 193-208.

[19]   Leigh, P.C.J., Van Furth, R. and Zwet, T.L. (1986) In vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. In: Weir, D.M., Ed., Handbook of Experimental Immunology, 4th Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 46, 1-46.

[20]   Bos, A.R., Weaver, R. and Roos, D. (1990) Characterization and qualification of the peroxidase in human neutrophils. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 525, 4133-4141.

[21]   Sasaki, S., Miura, T., Nishikawa, S., Yamada, K., Hirasue, M. and Nakane, A. (1998) Protective role of nitric oxide in S. aureus infection in mice. Infection and Immunity, 66, 1017-1018.

[22]   Neathery, M. and Miller, W. (1975) Metabolism and toxicity of cadmium, mercury, and lead in animals. Department of Animal and Dairy Science, 58, 1767-1781.

[23]   Gennart, J.P., Bernard, A. and Lanwerys, R. (1992) Assessment of thyroid, testes, kidney and autonomic nervous system function in lead exposed workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 64, 49-57.

[24]   McGregor, A.J. and Mason, M.J. (1990) Chronic occupational lead exposure and testicular endocrine function. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 9, 371-376. 0900602