IJCM  Vol.4 No.11 , November 2013
Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation in Systolic Heart Failure, Pulsed and Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Abnormalities

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome mostly due to the impaired ability of the Left Ventricle (LV) to eject blood with reduced cardiac output. Heart failure is called systolic (SHF) if left ventricle ejection fraction on echo-cardiogram is low (LVEF of ≤50%). Aim: To assess the echocardiographic characteristics of patients with SHF with Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and compare with those with Sinus Rhythm (SR) on 12 leads ECG. Furthermore, to evaluate the clinical and biochemical markers for the prediction of AF in SHF. Method: Over two years duration, each patient diagnosed with SHF was enrolled in the study (n = 354) based on admission code. AF or sinus rhythm on 12 leads ECG was documented on each patient. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the risk ratio of different clinical and Doppler derived variables for the development of AF in SHF. Results: Out of the total hospital medical admissions of 14,674 patients, there were 354 patients with diagnosis of SHF, a prevalence of 2.4%. The incidence of AF on ECG was 109 (31%) patients in the whole study population and 245 (69%) in SR. M Mode echocardiogram in patients with SHF and AF compared with those in SR showed significant dilation of LV cavity in systole with LVESD of 5.72 ± 0.63 vs. 5.23 ± 0.76 cm, P < 0.001 and in Diastole LVEDD of 6.83 ± 0.51 vs. 6.58 ± 0.63 cm, P < 0.001. Pulsed Doppler echocardiogram showed a severe restrictive-pattern with shorter Decellration Time (DT) of 163.73 ± 7.42 vs. 214.9 ± 31.81msec, P < 0.001 and higher Pulse to Tissue Doppler ratio of E/Em of 14.26 ± 1.34 vs. 9.99 ± 1.27, P < 0.001, and the serum level of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) hormone of 723.72 ± 13.45 vs. 686.98 ± 72.57 pg/ml, P < 0.001. The predictive risks (odd ratio) of different clinical variables for the development of AF in SHF were positive for high BNP > 500 pg/ml of 2.8, history of hypertension of 1.8, history of DM of 1.7, BMI > 28 of 1.4, LV hypertrophy on ECG of 1.3. Conclusions: The prevalence of Systolic Heart Failure in the study population was 2.4%. The prevalence of AF in the study population was 31%. The best predictors of AF in SHF were high BNP > 500 pg/ml, history of hypertension, Diabete Mellitus and LV Hypertrophy on ECG.

Cite this paper
S. Gabani, T. Garadah, A. Hassan, A. Jaradat, M. Al Alawi and Z. Hasan, "Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation in Systolic Heart Failure, Pulsed and Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Abnormalities," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 504-509. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.411089.
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