In hybrid wireless sensor networks composed of both static and mobile sensor nodes, the random deployment of stationary nodes may cause coverage holes in the sensing field. Hence, mobile sensor nodes are added after the initial deployment to overcome the coverage holes problem. To achieve optimal coverage, an efficient algorithm should be employed to find the best positions of the additional mobile nodes. This paper presents a genetic algorithm that searches for an optimal or near optimal solution to the coverage holes problem. The proposed algorithm determines the minimum number and the best locations of the mobile nodes that need to be added after the initial deployment of the stationary nodes. The performance of the genetic algorithm was evaluated using several metrics, and the simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can optimize the network coverage in terms of the overall coverage ratio and the number of additional mobile nodes.
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