M. Maffezzini, F. Campodonico, G. Canepa, et al., “Current Perioperative Management of Radical Cystectomy with Intestinal Urinary Reconstruction for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer and Reduction of the Incidence of Postoperative Ileus,” Surgical Oncology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp. 41-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2007.09.003
 E. K. Tan, J. Cornish, A. W. Darzi and P. P. Tekkis, “Meta-Analysis: Alvimopan vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Post-operative Ileus,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2006, pp. 47-57.
 T. Herzog, R. Coleman, J. Guerrieri, et al., “A Doubleblind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Study of the Safety of Alvimopan in Patients Who Undergo Simple Total Abdominal Hysterectomy,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 195, No. 2, 2006, pp. 445-453. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.01.039
 T. Bell, S. Poston, M. Kraft, et al., “Economic Analysis of Alvimopan in North American Phase III Efficacy Trials,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Vol. 66, No. 15, 2009, pp. 1362-1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.2146/ajhp080329
 J. Schmidt, B. Stoffels, A. Nazir, et al., “Alvimopan and COX-2 Inhibition Reverse Opioid and Inflammatory Components for Postoperative Ileus,” Neurogastroenterology & Motility, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2008, pp. 689-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01078.x
 B. Wolff, J. Weese, K. Ludwig, et al., “Postoperative Ileus-Related Morbidity Profile in Patients Treated with Alvimopan after Bowel Resection,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 204, No. 4, 2007, pp. 609-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.01.041
 I. Obokhare, B. Champagne, S. Stein, et al., “The Effect of Alvimopan on Recovery after Laparoscopic Segmental Colectomy,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2011, pp. 743-746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/DCR.0b013e318217ed17
 A. Lightfoot, M. Eno, K. Kreder, et al., “Treatment of Postoperative Ileus after Bowel Surgery with Low-Dose Intravenous Erythromycin,” Journal of Urology, 2007, Vol. 69, No. 4, 2007, pp. 611-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2006.12.027
 H. Park, C. Kwak, S. Byun, et al., “Early Removal of Nasogastric Tube after Cystectomy with Urinary Diversion: Does Postoperative Ileus Risk Increase?” Journal of Urology, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2004, pp. 905-908.
 E. Kouba, E. Wallen and S. Pruthi, “Gum Chewing Stimulates Bowel Motility in Patients Undergiong Radical Cystec-Tomy with Urinary Diversion,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 70, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1053-1056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2007.07.048
 H. Choi, S. Kang, D. Yoon, et al., “Chewing Gum Has a Stimulatory Effect on Bowel Motility in Patients after Open or Robotic Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: A Prosperctive Randomized Comparative Study,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2011, pp. 884-890. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.urology.2010.06.042
 R. Svatek, M. Fisher, M. Williams, et al., “Age and Body Mass Index Are Independent Risk Factors for the Development of Postoperative Paralytic Ileus after Radical Cystectomy,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 76, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1419-1424.