Chu, C. (1998). A discourse grammar of mandarin Chinese. New York: Peterlang.
 Dik, S. (1997). The theory of functional grammar. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
 Givón, T. (1983). Topic continuity in discourse: A quantitative crosslanguage study. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
 Halliday, M. A. K. (2008). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
 Hawkins, J. A. (1994) A performance theory of order and constituency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Li, C., & Thompson, S. (1976). Subject and topic: A new typology of language. In Le Charles (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 457-489). New York: Academic Press.
 Li, W. D. (2005) Topic chains in Chinese: A discourse analysis and application in language teaching. Muenchen: Lincom Europa Academic Publications.
 Qian, Z. S. (1991) Fortress besieged. Beijing: People Literature Press.
 Tsao, F. F. (1990). A functional study of topic in Chinese: The first step towards discourse. Taipei: Student Book Co.