Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars for concrete structure has been extensively investigated for last two decades and a number of FRP bars are commercially available. However, one of shortcomings of the existing FRP bars is its low elastic modulus, if glass fibers are used (i.e., GFRP). The main objective of this study using the concept of material hybridization is to develop a viable hybrid FRP bar for concrete structures, especially for marine and port con- crete structures. The purposes of hybridization are to increase the elastic modulus of GFRP bar with acceptable tensile strength. Two types of hybrid GFRP bar were considered in the development: GFRP crust with steel core and GFRP bar with steel wires dispersed over the cross-section. Using E-glass fibers and unsaturated polyester resins, the hybrid GFRP bar samples of 13 mm in diameter were pultruded and tested for tensile properties. The effect of hybridization on tensile properties of GFRP bars was evaluated by comparing the results of tensile test with those of non-hybrid GFRP bars. The results of this study indicated that the elastic modulus of the hybrid GFRP bar was increased by up to 270 percent by the material hybridization. The results of the test and the future recommendations are summarized in this paper. To ensure long-term durability of the hybrid GFRP bars in waterfront structure applications, the individual and combined effects of environmental conditions on hybrid GFRP rebar itself as well as on the interface between rebar and concrete should be accessed.
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