FNS  Vol.4 No.11 A , November 2013
Predominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Traditional Fermentation of Fufu and Ogi, Two Nigerian Fermented Food Products
Abstract: Traditional methods of preparation were simulated in the laboratory fermentations of cassava and maize to produce fufu and ogi respectively. Changes in pH, temperature and titratable acidity, as well as the diversity of lactic acid bacteria species were investigated during both fermentations. Lactic acid bacteria strains involved in the fermentation processes were isolated at twelve hourly intervals, characterized and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. A rapid decrease in pH, 5.6 to 3.7 in fufu and 5.9 to 3.8 in ogi, were observed with temperature increasing from 26℃ to 30℃and 25℃ to 31℃ in fufu and ogi respectively. Most of the lactic acid bacteria strains isolated were homofermentative and heterofermentative Lactobacillus species and heterofermentative Leuconostoc species. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant lactic acid bacteria species in fufu while L. cellobiosus, L. plantarum and Lc. lactis were dominant in ogi fermentation. An ecological succession pattern in which Leuconostoc species were mostly isolated during early stages of fermentation with the final stages populated with Lactobacillus species was observed in both cases and is attributable to differential acid tolerance of the two genera. The frequencies of dominance of the strains in fufu were L. plantarum (56.25%), Lc. mesenteroides (18.75%), L. lactis (6.25%), L. coprophillus (6.25%), L. acidophilus (6.25%) and L. brevis (6.25%). The frequencies of dominance in ogi were L. cellobiosus (26.6%), Lc. lactis (26.6%), L. plantarum (20.0%), L. acidophilus (13.33%) and Lc. paramesenteroides (13.33%). The dominant strains can serve as potential starter cultures for fufu and ogi production.
Cite this paper: O. Oyedeji, S. Ogunbanwo and A. Onilude, "Predominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Traditional Fermentation of Fufu and Ogi, Two Nigerian Fermented Food Products," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 40-46. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.411A006.

[1]   K. O. H. Steinkraus, “Indigenous Fermented Foods Involving Acid Fermentation/ Acid Fermented Cereal Gruel,” In: Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1983, pp. 189-218.

[2]   W. Holzapfel, “Use of Starter Culture in Fermentation on a Household Scale,” Food Control, Vol. 8, No. 5-6, 1997, pp. 241-258.

[3]   A. I. Sanni, A. A. Onilude, S. T. Ogunbanwo and S. I. Smith, “Antagonistic Activity of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus species from Ogi, an Indigenous Fermented Food,” Journal of Basic Microbiology, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1999, pp. 189-195.<189::AID-JOBM189>3.0.CO;2-R

[4]   A. H. Rose, “Economic Microbiology, Microbiology of Fermented Foods,” Academic Press, London, 1982.

[5]   T. R. Klaenhammer, “Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Biochemie, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1988, pp. 337-349.

[6]   M. V. Leal, M. Baras, J. L. Ruiz-Barba, B. Floriano and R. Jimenez-Diaz, “Bacteriocin Production and Competitiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 in Olive Juice Broth, a Culture Medium Obtained from Olives,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 129-134.

[7]   S. E. Gilliland, “Health and Nutritional Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 87, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 175-188.

[8]   S. Salminen, M. Deighton and S. Gorbach, “Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease,” In: S. Salminen and A. Van Wright, Eds., Lactic Acid Bacteria, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1993, pp. 234-294.

[9]   C. M. Chapman, G. R. Gibson and I. Rowland, “Health Benefits of Probiotics: Are Mixtures More Effective than Single Strains?” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-17.

[10]   M. V. Herias, C. Hessle, E. Telemo, T. Midtvedt, L. A Hanson and A. E. Wold, “Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Colonizing the Intestine of Gnotobiotic Rats,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol. 116, No. 2, 1999, pp. 283-290.

[11]   S. A. Odunfa, “African Fermented Foods,” In: B. J. B. Wood, Ed., Microbiology of Fermented Foods, Vol. 2, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 1985, pp. 155-191.

[12]   M. M. Burrell, “Starch: The Need for Improved Quality or Quantity and Overview,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 218, No. 382, 2003, pp. 451-456.

[13]   FAO, “Production Yearbook,” Vol. 44, 1990, FAO, Rome.

[14]   K. Abegaz, “Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in Traditional Fermentation of Borde, an Ethiopian Cereal Beverage,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 12, 2007, pp. 14691478.

[15]   T. Deak and L. R. Beuchat, “Handbook of Spoilage Yeasts,” CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 1996, pp. 1-36,61154.

[16]   G. W. Gould, “Ecosystem Approaches to Food Preservation,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 73, No. S21, 1992, pp. 58S-68S.

[17]   O. B. Oyewole, “Fermentation of Cassava for Lafun Production,” Food Laboratory News, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1991, pp. 29-31.

[18]   S. K. Soni, D. K. Sandhu, K. S. Vikhu and N. Kamra, “Microbiological Studies on Dosa Fermentation,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1986, pp. 45-53.

[19]   W. E. Sandine, “Looking Backward and Forward at the Practical Applications of Genetic Research on Lactic Acid Bacteria,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1987, pp. 205-220.

[20]   AOAC, “Official Methods of Analytical Chemists,” AOAC, Arlington, 1984.

[21]   D. Pearson, “Laboratory Techniques in Food Analysis,” Butterworth, London, Boston, 1973, pp. 50-57.

[22]   P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe and J. G. Holt, “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology,” Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 1986.

[23]   B. J. B. Wood and W. H. Holzapfel, “The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Blackie Academic and Professional, Chapman and Hall, Glasgow, 1995.

[24]   P. K. Sarkar and J. P. Tamang, “The Influence of Process Variation and Inoculum Composition on the Sensory Qualities of Kinema,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1994, pp. 317-325.

[25]   K. H. Steinkraus, “Fermentations in World Food Processing,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002, pp. 23-32.

[26]   W. S. M. Lorri, “Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Fermented Cereal Weaning Foods,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Food Sciences, Chammers University of Technology, Gotenborg, 1993.

[27]   Y. B. Byaruhanga, B. H. Bester and T. G. Watson, “Growth and Survival of Bacillus cereus in Mageu, a Sour Maize Beverage,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1999, pp. 329-333.

[28]   N. F. Kunene, J. W. Hastings and A. Von Holy, “Bacterial Populations Associated with a Sorghum-Based Weaning Cereal,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 75-83.

[29]   A. T. C. Ana, A. P. Rosinea, C. M. Hilario and A. M. Celia, “Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Italian Salami,” Food Microbiology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2006, pp. 213-219.

[30]   M. E. Sharpe, “Identification Methods for Microbiologists,” 2nd Edition, Acad. Press Soc., 1979, pp. 233-259.

[31]   L. G. McDonald, H. P. Flemming and H. M. Hassan, “Acid Tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 57, No. 7, 1990, pp. 2120-2124.

[32]   E. Makimattila, M. Kahala and V. Joutsjoki, “Characterization and electrotransformation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paraplantarum Isolated from Fermented Vegetables,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2011, pp. 371-379.

[33]   P. C. Obinna-Echem, V. Kuri and J. Beal, “Evaluation of the Microbial Community, Acidity and Proximate Composition of Akamu, a Fermented Maize Food,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2013.

[34]   M. L. Johansson, A. Sanni, C. Lonner and G. Molin, “Phenotypically Based Taxonomy using API 50CH of Lactobacilli from Nigerian Ogi, and the Occurrence of Starch Fermenting Strains,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1995, pp. 159-168.

[35]   V. Getcheva, S. S. Pandiella, A. Angelov, Z. G. Roshkova and C. Webb, “Microflora Identification of the Bulgarian Cereal-based Fermented Beverage Boza,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 127-130.

[36]   F. C. O. Gomes, C. L. C. Silva, C. R. Vianna, I. C. A. Lacerda, B. M. Borreli, A. C. Nunes, G. R. Franco, M. M. Mourao and C. A. Rosa, “Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Traditional Cachaca Fermentations,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2010, pp. 486-492.

[37]   J. I. Leisner, M. Vancanneyt, G. Rusul, B. Pot, K. Lefebvre, A. Fresi and L. K. Tee, “Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Constituting Predominating Microflora in an Acid-Fermented Condiment (Tempoyak) Popular in Malaysia,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 63, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 149-157.

[38]   E. Madoroba, E. T. Steenkamp, J. Theron, G. Huys, I. Schierlinck and T. E. Cloete, “Polyphasic Taxonomic Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spontaneous Sorghum Fermentations Used to Produce Ting, a Traditional South African Food,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2009, pp. 458-463.

[39]   J. K. Mugula, S. A. M. Ninko, J. A. Narvhus and T. Sorhaug, “Microbiological and Fermentation Characteristics of Togwa, a Tanzanian Fermented Food,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 80, No. 3, 2003, pp. 187-199.

[40]   L. H. Damelin, G. A. Dykes and A. Von Holy, “Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Food-Related Ecosystem,” Microbios, Vol. 83, No. 334, 1995, pp. 13-22.

[41]   C. F. Williams and C. W. Dennis, “Food Microbiology,” 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2011, p. 330.