OJML  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2013
Arabic Emphatics: Phonetic and Phonological Remarks
Abstract: Arabic has a set of complex coronals, /s/, /d/, and /t/, which are the emphatic sounds of their plain counterparts /s/, /d/, , and /t/. These emphatic sounds in Arabic are problematic both phonetically and phonologically. Phonetically, the secondary articulation of these sounds is disputed. Phonologically, they are grouped with the rest of Arabic guttural class in some studies while excluded by others. This paper touches on these arguments and argues that phonologically, these sounds are not part of the Arabic guttural class.
Cite this paper: Al-Solami, M. (2013). Arabic Emphatics: Phonetic and Phonological Remarks. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 3, 314-318. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2013.34040.

[1]   Al-Ani, S. (1970). Arabic phonology: An acoustical and physiological investigation. The Hague: Mouton.

[2]   Ali, L. H., & Daniloff, R. E. (1972). A contrastive cinefluorographic investigation of the articulation of emphatic-non-emphatic cognate consonants. Studia Linguistica, 26, 81-105.

[3]   Al-Nassir, A. (1993) Sibawayh the phonologist. London and New York: Keegan Paul International.

[4]   Alwan, A. (1989). Perceptual cues for place of articulation for the voiced pharyngeal and uvular consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 86, 549-556.

[5]   Bin-Muqbil, M. (2006). Phonetic and phonological aspects of Arabic emphatics and gutturals. Ph.D. Dissertation, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.

[6]   Catford, J. C. (1977). Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: University Press.

[7]   Delattre, P. (1971). Pharyngeal features in the consonants of Arabic, German, Spanish, French, and American English. Phonetica, 23, 129-155.

[8]   Foley, J. (1977). Foundations of theoretical phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[9]   Fudge, E. C. (1967). The nature of phonological primes. Journal of Linguistics, 3, 1-36.

[10]   Ghazeli, S. (1977). Back consonants and backing coarticulation in Arabic. Ph.D. Dissertation, Austin, TX: University Texas at Austin.

[11]   Giannini, A., & Pettorino, M. (1982). The emphatic consonants in Arabic. Speech Laboratory Report IV, Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli.

[12]   Gouda, A. (1988). Quraanic recitation: Phonological analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington, DC: Georgetown University.

[13]   Hamid, A. (1984). The phonology of Sudanese Arabic. Ph.D. Dissertation, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.

[14]   Jakobson, R. (1957). Mufaxxama—The emphatic phonemes in Arabic: synchronic and diachronic aspects. In: E. Pulgram (Ed.), Studies presented to Joshua Whatmough (pp. 105-115). The Hague: Mouton.

[15]   Kingston, J. (2007). The phonetics-phonology interface. Paul de Lacy (ed.), The handbook of phonology (pp. 401-434). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[16]   Ladefoged, P., & Maddieson, I. (1996) The sounds of the world’s languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

[17]   Laufer, A., & Baer, T. (1988). The emphatic and pharyngeal sounds in Hebrew and Arabic. Language & Speech, 24, 39-61.

[18]   McCarthy, J. (1994). The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals. In P. Keating (Ed.), Phonological structure and phonetic form: Papers in laboratory phonology III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[19]   Ohala, J. J. (1990). There is no interface between phonetics and phonology. A personal view. Journal of Phonetics, 18, 153-171.

[20]   Trubetskoi, N. (1969). Principles of phonology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[21]   Zawaydeh, B. (1997). An acoustic analysis of uvularization spread in Ammani-Jordanian Arabic. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27, 185-200.

[22]   Zawaydeh, B. (1998). Gradient uvularisation spread in Ammani-Jordanian Arabic. In A. Benmamoun, M. Eid, & N. Haeri (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics 11 (pp. 117-141). Amsterdam: John Benjamins,.

[23]   Zawaydeh, B. (1999). The phonetics and phonology of gutturals in Arabic. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.