Pressure-Driven Demand and Leakage Simulation for Pipe Networks Using Differential Evolution
Abstract: Traditional techniques for hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks, which are referred to as demand-driven simulation method (DDSM), are normally analyzed under the assumption that nodal demands are known and satisfied. In many cases, such as pump outage or pipe burst, the demands at nodes affected by low pressures will decrease. Therefore, hydraulic analysis of pipe networks under deficient pressure conditions using conventional DDSM may cause large deviation from actual situations. In this paper, an optimization model is introduced for hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks using a meta-heuristic method called Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. In this methodology, there is no need to solve linear systems of equations, there is a simple way to handle pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation, and it does not require an initial solution vector which is sometimes critical to the convergence. Also, the proposed model does not require any complicated mathematical expression and operation.
Cite this paper: N. Moosavian and M. Jaefarzadeh, "Pressure-Driven Demand and Leakage Simulation for Pipe Networks Using Differential Evolution," World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2013, pp. 49-58. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2013.13008.
References

[1]   E. Todini, “A More Realistic Approach to the “Extended Period Simulation” of Water Distribution Networks, Advances in Water Supply Management,” Taylor & Francis, Chapter 19, 2003.

[2]   F. Martinez, P. Conejos and J. Vercher, “Developing an Integrated Model for Water Distribution Systems Considering Both Distributed Leakage and Pressure Dependent Demands,” Proceedings of the 26th Annual ASCE Water Resources Planning and Management Conference, Tempe, Arizona, June 1999, pp. 1-14.

[3]   G. Germanopoulos, “A Technical Note on the Inclusion of Pressure Dependent Demand and Leakage Terms in Water Supply Network Models,” Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1985, pp. 171-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02630258508970401

[4]   G. Germanopoulos, P. W. Jowitt and J. P. Lumbers, “Assessing the Reliability of Supply and Level of Service for Water Distribution Systems,” Proceedings of The Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 80, No. 2, 1 April 1986, pp. 413-428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/iicep.1986.741

[5]   J. Lumbers, “Re-Thinking Network Analysis for Intermittent Supplies,” Water and Environment, Manager, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1996, p. 6.

[6]   L. S. Reddy and K. Elango, “Analysis of Water Distribution Networks with Head Dependent Outlets,” Civil Engineering Systems, Vol. 3, No. 6, 1989, pp. 102-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02630258908970550

[7]   M. Tabesh, “Implications of the Pressure Dependency of Outflows on Data Management, Mathematical Modeling and Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Systems,” PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, 1998.

[8]   T. T. Tanyimboh and M. Tabesh, “Discussion of Comparison of Methods for Predicting Deficient-Network Performance,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 123, No. 6, 1997, pp. 369-370.

[9]   J. Almandoz, E. M. Cabrera, F. Arregui, E. Jr. Cabrera and R. Cobacho, “Leakage Assessment through Water Distribution Network Simulation,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 131, No. 6, 2005, pp. 458-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2005)131:6(458)

[10]   A. F. Colombo and B. W. Karney, “Energy and Costs of Leaky Pipes: Toward a Comprehensive Picture,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 128, No. 6, 2002, pp. 441-450.

[11]   O. Giustolisi, D. Savic and Z. Kapelan, “Pressure-Driven Demand and Leakage Simulation for Water Distribution networks,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 5, 2008, pp. 626-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2008)134:5(626)

[12]   M. L. Arora, “Flow Split In Closed Loops Expending Least Energy,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, Vol. 102, No. 3, 1976, pp. 455-458.

[13]   M. A. Hall, “Hydraulic Network Analysis Using (Generalized) Geometric Programming,” Networks, Vol. 6, No. , 6, 1976, pp. 105-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/net.3230060204

[14]   M. Collins, L. Cooper, R. Helgason, J. Kenningston and L. LeBlanc, “Solving the Pipe Network Analysis Problem Using Optimization Techniques,” Management Science, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1978, pp. 747-760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.24.7.747

[15]   P. R. Bhave and R. Gupta, “Analysis of Water Distribution Networks,” Alpha Science International, Technology & Engineering, University of Michigan, Michigan, 2006.

[16]   J. Wagner, U. Shamir and D. Marks, “Water Distribution Reliability: Analytical Methods,” Journal of the Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 114, No. 3, 1988, pp. 253-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1988)114:3(253)

[17]   J. Chandapillai, “Realistic Simulation of Water Distribution System,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 2, 1991, pp. 258-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(1991)117:2(258)

[18]   L. Ainola, T. Koppel, T. Tiiter and A. Vassiljev, “Water Network Model Calibration Based on Grouping Pipes with Similar Leakage and Roughness Estimates,” Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Water Resource Engineering and Water Resource Planning and Management, Minneapolis, 2000, pp. 104-197.

[19]   W. Chun-Yin and T. Ko-Ying, “Topology Optimization of Structure Using Differential Evolution,” Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2008, pp. 46-51.

[20]   E. Todini and S. Pilati, “A Gradient Algorithm for the Analysis of Pipe Networks. Computer Applications in Water Supply. 1 (System Analysis and Simulation),” John Wiley & Sons, London, 1988, pp. 1-20.

[21]   K. N. Mallick, I. Ahmed, K. S. Tickle and K. E. Lansey, “Determining Pipe Groupings For Water Distribution Networks,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 128, No. 2, 2002, pp. 130-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2002)128:2(130)

[22]   L. Jun and Y. Guoping, “Iterative Methodology of Pressure-Dependent Demand Based on EPANET for Pressure-Deficient Water Distribution Analysis,” Journal of Water Resources Planning Management, Vol. 139, No. 1, 2013, pp. 34-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000227

Top