OJMH  Vol.3 No.4 , October 2013
Remote Monitoring of Surfaces Wetted for Dust Control on the Dry Owens Lakebed, California
Abstract
Extensive dust control on the dry Owens Lake mainly uses constructed basins that are flooded with shallow depths of fresh water. This dust control is mandated by law as a minimum percent of the area of each individual wetting basin. Wetted surfaces are evaluated for area and degree of wetness using the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band of Landsat TM, or similar earth observation satellite sensor. The SWIR region appropriate for these measurements lies within the electromagnetic spectrum between about 1.5 and 1.8 μm wavelengths. A threshold value for Landsat TM5 band 5 reflectance of 0.19 was found to conform with surfaces having a threshold for adequate wetting at a nascent point where rapid drying would occur following loss of capillary connection with groundwater. This threshold is robust and requires no atmospheric correction for the effects of aerosol scatter and attenuation as long as the features on the image appear clear. Monthly monitoring of surface wetting has proven accurate, verifiable and repeatable using these methods. This threshold can be calibrated for any Earth observation satellite that records the appropriate SWIR region. The monitoring program is expected to provide major input for the final phase of the dust control program that will have a focus to conserve water and resources.

Cite this paper
D. P. Groeneveld and D. D. Barz, "Remote Monitoring of Surfaces Wetted for Dust Control on the Dry Owens Lakebed, California," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 241-252. doi: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34028.
References

[1]   Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District, “2008 Owens Valley PM10 Planning Area Demonstration of Attainment State Implementation Plan. Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District,” 2008. http://www.gbuapcd.org/Air%20Quality%20Plans/2008SIPfinal/2008%20SIP%20-%20FINAL.pdf

[2]   W. L. Kahrl, “Water and Power,” University of California Press, Berkeley, 1982.

[3]   H. S. Gale, “Salines in the Owens, Searles and Panamint Basins, Southeastern California,” US Geological Survey Bulletin 580, 1915, pp. 251-323.

[4]   A. S. Jayko and S. N. Bacon, “Late Quaternary MIS 6-8 Shoreline Features of Pluvial Owens Lake, Owens Valley, Eastern California,” In: M. C. Reheis, R. Hershler and D. M. Miller, Eds., Late Cenozoic Drainage History of the Southwestern Great Basin and Lower Colorado River Region: Geologic and Biotic Perspectives, Geol Soc Am Spec Pap. 439, 2008, pp. 185-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/2008.2439(08)

[5]   S. S. Alderman, “Geology of the Owens Lake Evaporite Deposit,” 6th Int Symp Salt, 1983, pp. 75-83.

[6]   P. Saint-Amand, L. A. Mathews, C. Gaines and R. Reinking, “Dust Storms from Owens and Mono Valleys, California,” US Naval Weapons Center, California, 1986.

[7]   P. Saint-Amand, P. C. Gaines and D. Saint-Amand, “Owens Lake, an Ionic Soap Operas Staged on a Natric Playa,” Centennial Field Guide. Cordilleran Section of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 1, 1987, pp. 145-150.

[8]   T. E. Gill and T. A. Cahill, “Playa-Generated Dust Storms from Owens Lake,” In: C. A. Hall Jr., V. Doyle-Jones and B. Widawski, Eds., White Mountain Research Station Symposium IV Proceedings: The History of Water: Eastern Sierra, Owens Valley, White-Inyo Range, 1991, pp. 63-73.

[9]   Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District, “2003 Owens Valley PM10 Planning Area Demonstration of Attainment State Implementation Plan. Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District,” 2003. http://www.gbuapcd.org/Air%20Quality%20Plans/2008SIPfinal/2008%20SIP%20-%20FINAL.pdf

[10]   W. R. Gardner and M. Fireman, “Laboratory Studies of Evaporation from Soil Columns in the Presence of a Water Table,” Soil Science, Vol. 85, No. 4, 1957, pp. 244-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195805000-00002

[11]   W. R. Gardner, “Some Steady-State Solutions of the Unsaturated Moisture Flow Equation with Application to Evaporation from a Water Table,” Soil Science, Vol. 85, No. 4, 1958, pp. 228-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195804000-00006

[12]   A. Hadas and D. Hillel, “Steady-State Evaporation through Non-Homogeneous Soil Columns in the Presence of a Water Table,” Soil Science, Vol. 113, 1972. pp. 63-73.

[13]   D. P. Groeneveld, J. L. Huntington and D. D. Barz, “Floating Brine Crusts, Reduction of Evaporation and Possible Replacement of Fresh Water to Control Dust from Owens Lakebed, California,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 392, No. 3-4, 2010, pp. 211-218 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.08.010

[14]   Audubon, “New Opportunities for Birds,” 2013. http://ca.audubon.org/new-opportunities-birds-owens-lake, undated

[15]   R. M. Johnston and M. M. Barson, “Remote Sensing of Australian Wetlands: An Evaluation of Landsat TM Data for Inventory and Classification,” Marine & Freshwater Research, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1993, pp. 235-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF9930235

[16]   P. S. Frazier and K. J. Page, “Water Body Detection and Delineation with Landsat TM Data,” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 66, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1461-1467.

[17]   E. P. Crist and R. C. Cicone, “A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data—The TM Tasseled Cap,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1984, pp. 256-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.1984.350619

[18]   E. P. Crist and R. J. Kauth, “The Tasseled Cap Demystified,” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1986, pp. 81-86.

[19]   D. P. Groeneveld, R. P.Watson, D. D. Barz, J. R. Silverman and W. M. Baugh, “Assessment of Two Methods to Monitor Wetness to Control Dust Emissions, Owens Lake, California,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2010, pp. 3019-3035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160903140787

[20]   R. S. Lunetta and M. E. Balogh, “Application of Multitemporal Landsat 5 TM Imagery for Wetland Identification,” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 65, No. 11, 1999, pp. 1303-1310.

[21]   K. Hansen, “Earth-Observing Landsat 5 Turns 25,” 2009. http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/news-archive/dyk_0013.html

[22]   P. S. Chavez Jr., “An Improved Dark-Object Subtraction Technique for Atmospheric Scattering Correction of Multispectral Data,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1988, pp. 459-479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(88)90019-3

[23]   P. S. Chavez Jr., “Image-Based Atmospheric Corrections Revisited and Improved,” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 62, No. 9, 1996, pp. 1025-1036.

[24]   D. P. Groeneveld and D. D. Barz, “A Robust Empirical Relationship for Atmospheric Scatter between Red and Near-Infrared Bands,” Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2010, pp. 65-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160903154317

[25]   R. G. Allen, L. S. Pereira, D. Raes and M. Smith, “Crop Evapotranspiration,” FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, 1998.

[26]   California Irrigation Management Information System, “Monitoring Data from Owens Lake,” 2013. http://wwwcimis.water.ca.gov/cimis/welcome.jsp

[27]   R. G. Allen, “The ASCE Standardized Reference Evapo-transpiration Equation,” American Society of Civil Engineers, 2005.

 
 
Top