FNS  Vol.4 No.11 A , November 2013
The Effect of a Lactobacillus-Based Probiotic for the Control of Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers
Abstract: Necrotic Enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens (CP) in poultry is probably the most important bacterial disease in terms of economic implications. The disease is multi-factorial and is invariably associated with predisposing factors. The present study investigated the effect of a commercially available Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11) for the control of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, one-day-of-hatch broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the following treatment groups: 1) Non-challenged (NC); 2) Challenged (C); 3) Challenged + probiotic (C+ FM-B11). Prior to placement, chicks in groups 2 and 3 received 0.25 mL of Salmonella typhimurium (ST) containing 105 cfu of viable cells by oral gavage. At 14, 15 and 16 days of age, all chicks in group 3 were treated with FM-B11 in the drinking water at a concentration of 106 cfu/ml. At 21d of age, all chicks in groups 2 and 3, were individually challenged with 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima by oral gavage. At 26d of age, all chicks in groups 2 and 3, were individually challenged with 108 cfu CP; body weight (BW) was recorded prior to challenge. The experiment was terminated at 29 days of age and the following parameters were evaluated: NE-associated mortality, CP lesion scores, CP concentrations in ileum, BW, and body weight gain (BWG). Chicks treated with FM-B11 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain after challenge when compared to control challenge chickens. Total mortality was higher in the C group (48.8%) when compared to the C + FM-B11 (12.7%). Even though there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in lesion score between C and C + FM-B11, group C + FM-B11 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower total number of cfu of CP recovered from the ileal mucosa and content samples when compared to group C. Experiment 2 was a unique and remarkable case report of a field outbreak of NE in a commercial broiler farm in Argentina. A reduction and control of the mortality associated with NE following 3 days of administration of FM-B11 was observed as compared with the control non treated house. These results imply that the commercially available Lactobacillus-based probiotic FM-B11 was able to reduce the severities of NE, as a secondary bacterial infection, in an experimental NE challenge model; as well as, in a commercial field outbreak of NE.
Cite this paper: S. Layton, X. Hernandez-Velasco, S. Chaitanya, J. Xavier, A. Menconi, J. Latorre, G. Kallapura, V. Kuttappan, R. Wolfenden, R. Filho, B. Hargis and G. Téllez, "The Effect of a Lactobacillus-Based Probiotic for the Control of Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 11, 2013, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.411A001.

[1]   N. Rodondi and C. L. Hofacre, “Necrotic Enteritis, Currently a Billion Dollar Disease: Is There Anything New on the Horizon,” In: T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques, Eds., Science and Technology in the Feed Industry: Proceedings of Alltech’s 17th Annual Symposium, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 2001, pp. 79-86.

[2]   A. L. Keyburn, J. D. Boyce, P. Vaz, T. L. Bannam, M. E. Ford, et al., “NetB, a New Toxin That Is Associated with Avian Necrotic Enteritis Caused by Clostridium Perfringens,” PLoS Pathogens, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2008, p. e26.

[3]   A. L. Keyburn, S. A. Sheedy, M. E. Ford, M. M. Williamson, M. M. Awad, J. L. Rood, et al., “Alpha-Toxin of Clostridium perfringens Is Not an Essential Virulence Factor in Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens,” Infection and immunity, Vol. 74, No. 11, 2006, pp. 6496-6500.

[4]   L. Timbermont, F. Haesebrouck, R. Ducatelle and F. Van Immerseel, “Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers: An Updated Review on the Pathogenesis,” Avian Pathology, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2011, pp. 341-347.

[5]   R. Truscott and F. Al-Sheikhly, “Reproduction and Treatment of Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 38, No. 6, 1977, pp. 857861.

[6]   S. A. Sheedy, A. B. Ingham, J. I. Rood and R. J. Moore, “Highly Conserved Alpha-Toxin Sequences of Avian Isolates of Clostridium perfringens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1345-1347.

[7]   H. Schoepe, C. Pache, A. Neubauer, H. Potschka, T. Schlapp, et al., “Naturally Occurring Clostridium perfringens Nontoxic Alpha-Toxin Variant as a Potential Vaccine Candidate against Alpha-Toxin-Associated Diseases,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 69, No. 11, 2001, pp. 7194-7196.

[8]   J. McReynolds, J. Byrd, R. Anderson, R. Moore, T. Edrington, et al., “Evaluation of Immunosuppressants and Dietary Mechanisms in an Experimental Disease Model for Necrotic Enteritis,” Poultry Science, Vol. 83, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1948-1952.

[9]   R. Kulkarni, V. Parreira, S. Sharif and J. Prescott, “Immunization of Broiler Chickens against Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Vol. 14, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1070-1077.

[10]   C. Li, X. Yang, Z. Li, F. Sun, X. Wu, et al., “Reduced Lesions in Chickens with Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis by Lactobacillus fermentum 1.20291,” Poultry Science, Vol. 91, No. 12, 2012, pp. 3065-3071.

[11]   N. Nieto, M. Fernandez, M. Torres, A. Rios, M. Suarez, et al., “Dietary Monounsaturated n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Affect Cellular Antioxidant Defense System in Rats with Experimental Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 12, 1998, pp. 2676-2687.

[12]   L. Timbermont, A. Lanckriet, J. Dewulf, N. Nollet, K. Schwarzer, et al., “Control of Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers by Target-Released Butyric Acid, Fatty Acids and Essential Oils,” Avian Pathology, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2010, pp. 117-121.

[13]   S. Shivaramaiah, R. Wolfenden, J. Barta, M. Morgan, A. Wolfenden and B. Hargis, “The Role of an Early Salmonella Typhimurium Infection as a Predisposing Factor for Necrotic Enteritis in a Laboratory Challenge Model. Avian Diseases, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2011, pp. 319-323.

[14]   J. Castanon, “History of the Use of Antibiotic as Growth Promoters in European Poultry Feeds,” Poultry Science, Vol. 86, No. 11, 2007, pp. 2466-2471.

[15]   M. I. Alvarez-Olmos and R. A. Oberhelman, “Probiotic Agents and Infectious Diseases: A Modern Perspective on a Traditional Therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1567-1576.

[16]   T. Applegate, V. Klose, T. Steiner, A. Ganner and G. Schatzmayr, “Probiotics and Phytogenics for Poultry: Myth or Reality?” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2010, pp. 194-210.

[17]   M. J. Blaser, “Who Are We? Indigenous Microbes and the Ecology of Human Diseases,” EMBO Reports, Vol. 7, No. 10, 2006, pp. 956-960.

[18]   A. T. Borchers, C. Selmi, F. J. Meyers, C. L. Keen and M. E. Gershwin, “Probiotics and Immunity,” Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2009, pp. 26-46.

[19]   M. G. Dominguez-Bello and M. J. Blaser, “Do You Have a Probiotic in Your Future?” Microbes and Infection, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1072-1076.

[20]   E. Isolauri, P. Kirjavainen and S. Salminen, “Probiotics: A Role in the Treatment of Intestinal Infection and Inflammation?” Gut, Vol. 50, Suppl. 3, 2002, pp. iii54-iii59.

[21]   D. Jonkers and R. Stockbrügger, “Probiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 96, No. 4, 2003, pp. 167-171.

[22]   C. L. Hofacre, R. Froyman, B. George, M. A. Goodwin and J. Brown, “Use of Aviguard, Virginiamycin or Bacitracin MD against Clostridium perfringens-Associated Necrotizing Enteritis,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 7, 1998, pp. 412-418

[23]   R. Sleator and C. Hill, “New Frontiers in Probiotic Research,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2008, pp. 143-147.

[24]   G. Tellez, C. Pixley, R. Wolfenden, S. Layton and B. Hargis, “Probiotics/Direct Fed Microbials for Salmonella Control in Poultry,” Food Research International, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2012, pp. 628-633.

[25]   G. Tellez, S. Higgins, A. Donoghue and B. Hargis, “Digestive Physiology and the Role of Microorganisms,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2006, pp. 136-144.

[26]   M. Farnell, A. Donoghue, F. S. De Los Santos, P. Blore, B. Hargis, et al., “Upregulation of Oxidative Burst and Degranulation in Chicken Heterophils Stimulated with Probiotic Bacteria,” Poultry Science, Vol. 85, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1900-1906.

[27]   J. Higgins, S. Higgins, J. Vicente, A. Wolfenden, G. Tellez, et al., “Temporal Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotic Culture on Salmonella in Neonatal Broilers,” Poultry Science, Vol. 86, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1662-1666.

[28]   J. Higgins, S. Higgins, A. Wolfenden, S. Henderson, A. Torres-Rodriguez, et al., “Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotic Culture Treatment Timing on Salmonella Enteritidis in Neonatal Broilers,” Poultry Science, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2010, pp. 243-247.

[29]   J. P. Higgins, R. L. Andreatti Filho, S. E. Higgins, A. D. Wolfenden, G. Téllez, et al., “Evaluation of SalmonellaLytic Properties of Bacteriophages Isolated from Commercial Broiler Houses,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2008, pp. 139-142.

[30]   J. L. Vicente, A. Torres-Rodriguez, S. E. Higgins, C. Pixley, G. Tellez, et al., “Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp.-Based Probiotic on Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks,” Avian Diseases, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2008, pp. 143-146.

[31]   J. L. Vicente, S. Higgins, B. Hargis and G. Tellez, “Effect of Poultry Guard Litter Amendment on Horizontal Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Chicks,” International Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2007, pp. 314-317.

[32]   A. Torres-Rodriguez, S. Higgins, J. Vicente, A. Wolfenden, G. Gaona-Ramirez, et al., “Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight under Commercial Conditions,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2007, pp. 635-641.

[33]   A. Torres-Rodriguez, A. Donoghue, D. Donoghue, J. Barton, G. Tellez, et al., “Performance and Condemnation Rate Analysis of Commercial Turkey Flocks Treated with a Lactobacillus spp.-Based Probiotic,” Poultry Science, Vol. 86, No. 3, 2007, pp. 444-446.

[34]   S. Higgins, A. Torres-Rodriguez, J. Vicente, C. Sartor, C. Pixley, et al., “Evaluation of Intervention Strategies for Idiopathic Diarrhea in Commercial Turkey Brooding Houses,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2005, pp. 345-348.

[35]   A. Wolfenden, J. Vicente, J. Higgins, R. Andreatti Filho, S. Higgins, et al., “Effect of Organic Acids and Probiotics on Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens,” International Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 6, No. 6, 2007, pp. 403-405.

[36]   A. Wolfenden, C. Pixley, J. Higgins, S. Higgins, J. Vicente, et al., “Evaluation of Spray Application of a Lactobacillus-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Broiler Chickens,” International Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 6, No. 7, 2007, pp. 493-496.

[37]   B. Skanseng, M. Kaldhusdal and K. Rudi, “Comparison of Chicken Gut Colonization by the Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium perfringens by Real-Time Quantitative PCR,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2006, pp. 269-279.

[38]   J. Flint and M. Garner, “Feeding Beneficial Bacteria: A Natural Solution for Increasing Efficiency and Decreasing Pathogens in Animal Agriculture,” The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2009, pp. 367-378.

[39]   A. J. Carter, M. R. Adams, M. J. Woodward and R. M. La Ragione, “Control Strategies for Salmonella Colonization of Poultry: The Probiotic Perspective,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2009, pp. 103-115.

[40]   S. Parvez, K. Malik, S. Ah Kang and H.-Y. Kim, “Probiotics and Their Fermented Food Products Are Beneficial for Health,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 100, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1171-185.

[41]   N. M. De Roos and M. B. Katan, “Effects of Probiotic Bacteria on Diarrhea, Lipid Metabolism, and Carcinogenesis: A Review of Papers Published between 1988 and 1998,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2000, pp. 405-411.

[42]   W. E. Levinson and E. Jawetz, “Medical Microbiology and Immunology: Examination and Board Review,” Appleton & Lange, New York, 1996.

[43]   Y.-T. Tsai, P.-C. Cheng, C.-K. Fan and T. M. Pan, “Time-Dependent Persistence of Enhanced Immune Response by a Potential Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2008, pp. 219-225.

[44]   J. M. Wells, P. W. Wilson, P. M. Norton, M. J. Gasson and R. W. Le Page, “Lactococcus Lactis: High-Level Expression of Tetanus Toxin Fragment C and Protection against Lethal Challenge,” Molecular Microbiology, Vol 8, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1155-1162.