JWARP  Vol.5 No.10 , October 2013
Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Trace Metals in River Samre at Samreboi in the Wassa Amenfi West District of the Western Region of Ghana
ABSTRACT

The rational for the study was to assess the levels of endocrine disrupting trace metals in River Samre. The levels of Mercury ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 mg/l (mean of 0.006 mg/l), whiles cadmium levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 mg/l (mean of 0.01 mg/l). The high levels of Hg and Cd may have adverse effects on the endocrine system of inhabitants who drink directly from the river without treatment. High levels of mercury and cadmium might be caused by the activities of a Timber and Plywood Company located close to the river and the underlying bedrocks of the area exposed as a result of human activities such as farming. The concentration of lead was below detection limit (<0.005 mg/l) but that of Arsenic ranged from 0.001 to 0.007 mg/l (mean of 0.005). Health risk assessment conducted shows that the risk associated with exposure to these metals for now are low. Continuous water quality monitoring is recommended to help protect the resource and also to safeguard human health.


Cite this paper
M. Nkoom, S. Cobbina and M. Kumi, "Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Trace Metals in River Samre at Samreboi in the Wassa Amenfi West District of the Western Region of Ghana," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 10, 2013, pp. 983-992. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.510102.
References
[1]   U. K. Pradhan, P. V. Shirodkar and B. K. Shahu, “Physicochemical Characteristic of the Coastal Water off Devi Estuary, Orissa and Evaluation of Its Seasonal Changes Using Chemometric Techniques,” Current Science, Vol. 96, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1203-1209.

[2]   World Health Organization, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality [Electronic Resource]: Incorporating First Addendum,” 3rd Edition, 2006.

[3]   E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, L. J.-P. Bourguignon, C. Giudice, R. Hauser, S. Gail, A. M. Prins, R. Soto, T. Zoeller and A. C. Gore, “Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement,” Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2009, pp. 293-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0002

[4]   R. J. Kavlock, G. P. Daston and C. DeRosa, “Research Needs for Risk Assessment of the Usepa-Sponsored Workshop,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 104, Supplement 4, 1996, pp. 715-740.

[5]   R. M. Sharpe and N. E. Skakkebaek, “Are Oestrogens Involved in Falling Sperm Counts and Disorders of the Male Reproductive Tract?” Lancet, Vol. 341, No. 8857, 1993, pp. 1392-1396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)90953-E

[6]   P. T. C. Harrison, C. D. N. Humfrey, M. Litchfield, D. Peakall and L. K. Shuker, “IEH Assessment on Environmental Oestrogens: Conseqiuences to Human Health and Wildlife,” Medical Research Council, Institute for Environment and Health, Page Bros, Norwich, 1995, 107 pp.

[7]   J. Toppari, J. C. Larsen, P. Christiansen, A. Giwercman, P. Grandjean, L. J. Guillette, B. Jegou, T. K. Jensen, P. Jouannet, N. Keiding, H. Leffers, J. A. McLachlan, O. Meyer, E. Müller, D. Rajpert, E. Meyts, T. Scheike, R. Sharpe, J. Sumpter and N. Skakkebaek, “Male Reproductive Health and Environmental Chemicals with Estrogenic Effects,” Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen, 1995, 166 p.

[8]   Proceedings of European Workshop on the Impact of Endocrine Disrupters on Human Health and Wildlife, Weybridge, 2-4 December 1996.

[9]   D. Crews and J. A. McLachlan, “Epigenetics, Evolution, Endocrine Disruption, Health, and Disease,” Endocrinology, Vol. 147, No. 6, 2006, pp. S4-S10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-1122

[10]   R. Hauser, J. S. Barthold and J. D. Meeker, “Epidemiologic Evidence on the Relationship between Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Male Reproductive and Developmental Health,” In: A. C. Gore, Ed., Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice, Humana Press, Totowa, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-59745-107-X_10

[11]   S. M. Zala and D. J. Penn, “Abnormal Behaviours Induced by Chemical Pollution: A Review of the Evidence and New Challenges,” Animal Behaviour, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2004, pp. 649-664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.01.005

[12]   D. Crews, E. Willingham and J. K. Skipper, “Endocrine Disruptors: Present Issues, Future Directions,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2000, pp. 243-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/393498

[13]   L. Jarup, “Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination,” British Medical Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2003, pp. 167-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032

[14]   T. Colborn, F. S. Vomsaal and A. M. Soto, “Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 101, No. 5, 1993, pp. 378-384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.93101378

[15]   “Annual Action Plan,” Wasa Amenfi West District Asembly Profile, 2009.

[16]   “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1998.

[17]   S. Obiri, “Determination of Heavy Metal in Water from Boreholes in Dumasi in the Wassa West District of Western Region of Republic of Ghana,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 130, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 455-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9435-y

[18]   J. F. Artiola, I. L. Pepper and M. L. Brusseau, “Environmental Monitoring and Characterization,” Academic Press, Waltham, 2004, 410 p.

[19]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS),” National Centre for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, 2001.

[20]   D. K. Asante-Duah, “Managing Contaminated Sites: Problem Diagnosis and Development of Site Restoration,” Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1996, 254 p.

[21]   S. Obiri, D. K. Dodoo, D. K. Essumang and F. A. Armah, “Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk Assessment from Exposure to Arsenic, Copper, and Cadmium in Borehole, Tap, and Surface Water in the Obuasi Municipality, Ghana,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2010, pp. 651-665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807031003788907

[22]   D. K. Asante-Duah, “Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0481-7

[23]   R. V. Kollunu, S. M. Bartell, R. M. Piebald and R. S. Stricoff, “Risk Assessment and Management Handbook,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.

[24]   Ghana Statistical Service, “2000 Population and Housing Census, Summary Report of Final Results,” Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, 2002.

[25]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook. General Factors,” Office of Research and Development, Washington, 2008.

[26]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Risk Assessment Guideline for Superfund (RAGS): Vol. 1—Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A),” EPA-540/1-89-002, 1989.

[27]   “Mercury Study Report to Congress,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 1997.

 
 
Top