The efficacy of an activated sludge (modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE)) UV disinfection processes in removing human noroviruses and E. coli from sewage were compared with the prevalence of these microorganisms in a settled storm discharge from the same sewage treatment works. Both discharges impacted a designated oyster production area. The treatment process delivered average NoV and E. coli reductions of 2.9log10 and 5.2log10, respectively. Most E. coli reductions occurred during the UV disinfection process whereas the MLE process was comparatively more important in reducing NoV levels. A positive relationship was found between NoV removal and measured applied UV dose. The average levels of total NoV in the settled storm tank were of the same order of magnitude of those in screened raw influent at the works. These results highlight the importance of measures to reduce the impact of stormwater discharges to minimise the risk of NoV gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of oysters.
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