Back
 OPJ  Vol.3 No.6 , October 2013
Optimal VIA Placement in Under Filled Embedded Multimode Waveguides
Abstract: The self-imaging property of multimode waveguides creates a challenging problem when finding the optimal placement position of an out-of-plane coupler for embedded waveguides. This problem is compounded when the waveguides are coupled using a small input such as a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) or a single mode fiber where only some of the modes are generated. When the waveguide system is under filled, the coupling efficiency for the optical vertical interconnect assembly (VIA) can vary by as much as 6.2 dB depending on the length of the proceeding waveguide due to different output fields from the self-imaging property. This requires sweeping each individual VIA over the entire range of possible coupler positions to find the total maximum coupling efficiency. This process increases in complexity when a VIA supports several parallel channels all having a different optical path length. If a VIA can be placed in a calculated position from the end of a terminated embedded waveguide dependent upon the modal structure then blind pick and place methods may be used. The optimal coupler placement was determined based on smallest average VIA attenuation, smallest attenuation variance, and worse-case alignment scenario.
Cite this paper: N. Riegel, M. Howard and C. Middlebrook, "Optimal VIA Placement in Under Filled Embedded Multimode Waveguides," Optics and Photonics Journal, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2013, pp. 342-346. doi: 10.4236/opj.2013.36053.
References

[1]   D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel and H. Davidson, “Optical Interconnects: Out of the Box Forever?” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2003, pp. 614-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2003.812506

[2]   C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl and M. L. Schmatz, “High-Density Optical Interconnects within Large-Scale Systems,” Photonics Fabrication Europe, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003, pp. 222-235.

[3]   N. Savage, “Linking with light [high-speed optical interconnects],” IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2002, pp. 32-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2002.1021941

[4]   A. Neyer, S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. Kang and S. Tombrink, “Electrical-Optical Circuit Board Using Polysiloxane Optical Waveguide Layer,” Proceedings of 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, Lake Buena Vista, 31 May-3 June 2005, pp. 246-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECTC.2005.1441274

[5]   L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Based on Self-Imaging: Principles and Applications,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1995, pp. 615-627.

[6]   B. W. Swatowski, C. T. Middlebrook, K. Walczak and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical Loss Characterization of Polymer Waveguides on Halogen and Halogen-Free fr-4 Substrates,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7944, 2011, Article ID: 794409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.866081

[7]   M. D. Feit and J. J. A. Fleck, “Computation of Mode Properties in Optical Fiber Waveguides by a Propagating Beam Method,” Applied Optics, Vol. 19, No. 7, 1980, pp. 1154-1164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.19.001154

[8]   W. Huang, C. Xu, S.-T. Chu and S. Chaudhuri, “The Finite-Difference Vector Beam Propagation Method: Analysis and Assessment,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1992, pp. 295-305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/50.124490

[9]   K. Okamoto, “Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides,” Elsevier, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00619865

[10]   L. Thylén, “The Beam Propagation Method: An Analysis of Its Applicability,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1983, pp. 433-439.

[11]   D. Yevick, “A Guide to Electric Field Propagation Techniques for Guided-Wave Optics,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1994, pp. S185-S197.

[12]   R. D. Grounp, “BeamPROP Maunal Revision C,” Rsoft Design Group, Inc., Ossinging, 2011.

[13]   J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to Fourier Optics,” 3rd Edition, Roberts & Company Publishers, Englewood, 2004.

[14]   S. Odate, C. Koike, H. Toba, T. Koike, A. Sugaya, K. Sugisaki, K. Otaki and K. Uchikawa, “Angular Spectrum Calculations for Arbitrary Focal Length with a Scaled Convolution,” Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2011, pp. 14268-14276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.014268

[15]   N. Lindlein, “Simulation of Micro-Optical Systems Including Microlens Arrays,” Journal of Optics A Pure and Applied Optics, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2002, p. S1.

 
 
Top