This pilot study
examined the psychometric properties and clinical utility of a brief
neuropsychological instrument (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of
Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The test-retest reliability, practice effects
and convergent validity of RBANS were examined in participants without
objective cognitive impairment. The tests were administered at two time points
at approximately a two weeks’ interval, with 30 cognitively intact participants
with a mean age of 63.3 ± 5.8 years. Adequate test-retest reliabilities were
found for RBANS subtests, index and total scale scores with significant gain
scores in immediate memory and visuospatial function. The RBANS showed good
convergent validity and the RBANS supplemented with executive and language
measures (Colour Trails Test and 30-item modified Boston Naming Test,
respectively) demonstrated excellent convergent validity with a formal neuropsychological
battery. This pilot study has provided the preliminary evidence of reliability
and convergent validity of the RBANS. Additionally, it also provides insight on
the practice effects so that clinicians may assess significant changes in RBANS
subtests and domain indexes for clinical practice.
Cite this paper
Y. Dong, C. Thompson, S. Huey Joanne Tan, L. Ben Swie Lim, W. Pang and C. Li-Hsian Chen, "Test-Retest Reliability, Convergent Validity and Practice Effects of the RBANS in a Memory Clinic Setting: A Pilot Study," Open Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2013, pp. 11-16. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.24B003.
 Alzheimer’s Disease International, World Alzheimer Report 2009, London.
 S. H. Putnam and J. W. DeLuca, "The TCN Professional Practice Survey. Part I: General Practices of Neuropsychologists in Primary Employment and Private Practice Settings," The Clinical Neuropsychologist, Vol. 4, 1990, pp. 199-244. doi:10.1080/13854049008401 906
 M. McCrea, K. Guskiewicz, S. Marshall, W. Barr, C. Randolph, R. C. Cantu, et al., "Acute Effects and Recovery Time Following Concussion in Collegiate Football Players," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 290, 2003, pp. 2556-2563. doi:10.1001/ jama.290.19.2556
 C. Randolph, "Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Manual," The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, 1998.
 E. Strauss, E. M. Sherman and O. Spreen, "A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests," 5th Edition, New York, Oxford University Press, 2006.
 K. Duff, J. D. Clark, S. E. O’Bryant, J. W. Mold, R. B. Schiffer and P. B. Sutker, “Utility of the RBANS in Detecting Cognitive Impairment associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: Sensitivity, Specificity and Positive and Negative Predictive Powers," Archives Of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 23, 2008, pp. 603-612. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2008.06.004
 K. Duff, V. L. Hobson, L. J. Beglinger and S. E. O’Bryant, "Diagnostic Accuracy of the RBANS in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Limitations on Assessing Milder Impairments," Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 25, 2010, pp. 429-441. doi:10.1093 /arclin/acq045
 C. Garcia, B. Leahy, K. Corradi and C. Forchetti, "Component Structure of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in Dementia," Archives Of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 23, 2008, pp. 63-72. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2007.08.008
 L. F. D'Elia, P. Satz, C. Uchiyama and T. White, "Color Trails Test Professional Manual," Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL, 1996. doi:10.1097/00002093-200204000-00003
 S. J. Sahadevan, P. P. Lim, et al., "Psychometric Identi-fication Of Early Alzheimer's Disease In An Elderly Chinese Population With Differing Educational Levels," Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders, Vol. 16, 2002, pp. 65-72.doi:10.1097/00002093- 200204000-00003
 M. Lezak, D. Howieson and D. Loring, "Neuropsychological Assessment," 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004.
 M. G. Falleti, P. Maruff, A. Collie and D. G. Darby, “Practice Effects Associated with the Repeated Assessment of Cognitive Function using the Cogstate Battery at 10-Minute, One Week and One Month Test-Retest Intervals," Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 28, 2006, pp. 1095-1112.doi:10.1080/13803390500205718
 J. Lu, D. Li, F. Li, A. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Zuo, X. Jia, H. Song and J. Jia. "Montreal Cognitive Assessment in Detecting Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Elderly Individuals: A Population-Based Study," Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry And Neurology, Vol. 24, 2011, pp. 184-190. doi:10.1177/0891988711422528
 C. Memoria, P. Bertolucci, A. L. Sarmento, J. R. Wajman and O. Forlenza, "Brief Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Initial Validation of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) in Brazilian Elderly," Alzheimer's And Dementia, Vol. 7, 2011, p. s256.doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.05.726
 D. E. Patton, K. Duff, M. R. Schoenberg, J. Mold, J. G. Scott and R. L. Adams, "Base Rates of Longitudinal RBANS Discrepancies At One- And Two-Year Intervals In Community-Dwelling Older Adults," The Clinical Neuropsychologist, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2005, pp. 27-44. doi:10.1080/13854040490888477.
 D. Yeo, C. Gabriel, C. Chen, S. Lee, T. Loenneker and M. Wong, "Pilot Validation of a Customized Neuropsychological Battery in Elderly Singaporeans," Neurological Journal of South East Asia, Vol. 2, 1997, p. 123.
 K. Duff, W. R. Leber, D. E. Patton, M. R. Schoenberg, J. W. Mold, J. G. Scott and R. L. Adams, "Modified Scoring Criteria for the RBANS Figures," Applied Neuropsychology, Vol. 14, 2007, pp. 73-83. doi:10.1080/09084280701319805
 M. L. Lim, S. L. Collinson, L. Feng and T. P. Ng, Cross-Cultural Application of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): Performances of Elderly Chinese Singaporeans. Clinical Neuropsychologist, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 811-826. doi:10.1080/13854046.2010.490789
 L. F. D'Elia, P. Satz, C. Uchiyama and T. White,). "Color Trails Test, Professional Manual," Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL, 1996.
 D. Wechsler, "Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised," Harcourt Brace, San Antonio, TX, 1997.
 R. F. Lewis and P. M. Rennick, "Manual for the Repeatable Cognitive Perceptual-Motor Battery," Axon, Clinton Township, MI, 1979.
 W. J. Mack, D. M. Freed, B. W. Williams et al., "Boston Naming Test: Shortened Versions for use in Alzheimer ’s disease," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 47, 1992, pp. 154-158. doi:10.1093/geronj/47.3.P154
 B. Isaacs and A. T. Kennie, "The Set Test as an Aid to the Detection of Dementia in Old People," British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 123, 1973, pp. 467-470. doi:10.1192/bjp.123.4.467
 A. Smith, "Symbol Digit Modalities Test," Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA, 1973.
 L. Diller, Y. Ben-Yishay, L. J. Gerstman et al., "Studies in Cognition and Rehabilitation in Hemiplegia," Rehabilitation Monograph, No. 50, 1974, University Medical Center, New York.
 S. D. Porteus. "The Maze Test and Clinical Psychology," Pacific Books, Palo Alto, CA, 1959.
 T. Sunderland, J. L. Hill, A. M. Mellow et al., "Clock Drawing in Alzheimer’s Disease. A Novel Measure of Dementia Severity," Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 37, 1989, pp. 725-729.
 D. Wechsler. "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised," Harcourt Brace, New York, 1981.
 B, Dubois, I. Litvan, "The FAB: A Frontal Assessment Battery at Bedside," Neurology, Vol 55, 2000, pp. 1621-1626. doi:10.1212/WNL.55.11.1621
 H. M. Hodkinson, "Evaluation of a Mental Test Score for Assessment of Mental Impairment in the Elderly," Age and Aging, Vol. 1, 1972, pp. 233-238. doi:10.1093/ageing/1.4.233
 M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein and P. R. McHugh, "Mini-Mental State. A Practical Method for Grading the Cognitive State of Patients for the Clinician," Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 12, 1975, pp. 189-198. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6
 Z. S. Nasreddine, N. A. Phillips, V. Bedirian, S. Charbonneau, V. Whitehead, I. Collin et al., "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MOCA: A Brief Screening Tool for Mild Cognitive Impairment," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 53, 2005, pp. 695-699. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x
 J. I. Sheikh and J. A Yesavage, "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent Evidence and Development of a Shorter Version," In: T. L. Brink Ed., Clinical Gerontology: A Guide to Assessment and Intervention, The Haworth Press, New York, 1986, pp. 165-173.
 J. Cohen, "A Power Primer," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 112, 1992, pp. 155-159. doi:10.1037/ 0033-2909.112.1.155
 S. S. Dikmen, R. K Heaton, I. Grant and N. R. Temkin, "Test-Retest Reliability and Practice Effects of Expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery," Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 5, 1999, pp. 346-359. doi:10.1017/ S1355617799544056
 K. Duff, L. J. Beglinger, M. R. Schoenberg, D. E. Patton, J. Mold, J. G. Scott et al., "Test-Retest Stability and Practice Effects of the RBANS in a Community Dwelling Elderly Sample," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 27, 2005, pp. 565-575. doi:10.1080/13803390490918363