Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common medical complications of pregnancy together with anaemia and hypertension and it occurs approximately in 5%-10% of all pregnancies. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of UTI and prevalence of uropathogens among pregnant women. During the study period from December 2009 to August 2010, 417 urine samples were analyzed. UTI was diagnosed by growth of at least 105 CFU/ml of a urinary tract pathogen in a culture of a midstream urine sample. The isolated bacteria were identified by biochemical tests. The results showed that 49.4% of pregnant women have UTI. E. coli which was the most frequently isolated organism (56.79%), followed by Klebsiella sps (19.9%), Pseudomonas sps (6.3%), and Proteus sps (5.8%). Other pathogens isolated were Enterobacter (3.8%), Citrobacter (1.4%) and Enterococcus sps (0.9%). Of the variables examined, the highest prevalence rate was observed where, 53.3% of the infected women were in the age group 36 to 40 years, 54.15% were in their 3rd trimester; also the highest infection rate (70.2%) was observed in 7th month of pregnancy, concluding that old age pregnancy increased parity prone for UTI apart from individual hygiene and economical status.
Cite this paper
M. N. G., G. Math, A. Patil, S. Gaddad and C. Shivannavar, "Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections and Its Aetiological Agents among Pregnant Women in Karnataka Region," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2013, pp. 473-478. doi: 10.4236/aim.2013.36063.
 D. Leigh “Urinary Tract Infections,” In: G. R. Smith and S. F. Easma Charles, Eds., Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, Butler and Tanler Ltd., Frome and London, 1990, pp. 197-214.
 A. M. Awaness, M. G. Al-Saadi and S. A. Aadoas, “Antibiotics Resistance in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection,” Kufa Medical Journal, Vol. 3, 2000.
 J. E. Delzell Jr. and M. L. Lefevre, “Urinary Tract Infections during Pregnancy,” American Family Physician, Vol. 61, 2000, pp. 713-720.
 T. F. Patterson and V. T. Andriole, “Bacteriuria in Pregnancy,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Vol. 1, 1987, pp. 807-822.
 F. G. Cunningham and M. J. Lucas, “7 Urinary Tract Infections Complicating Pregnancy,” Baillière’s Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1994, pp. 353-373. doi:10.1016/S0950-3552(05)80325-6
 B. Nowiciki, “Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women: Old Dogmas and Current Concepts Regarding Pathogenesis,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2002, pp. 529-535.
 C. A. Gales, R. N. Jones, K. A. Gordon, H. S. Sader, W. W. Wilke, M. L. Beach, M. A. Pfaller, G. V. Doern and the SENETRY Study Group (Latin America), “Activity and Spectrum of 22 Antimicrobial Agents Tested against Urinary Tract Infection Pathogens in Hospitalised Patients in Latin America: Reports from the Second Year of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998),” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 293-303.
 A. Hart, T. Pham, S. Nowicki, et al., “Gestational Pyelonephritis Associated Escherichia coli Isolates Represent Non-Random Closely Related Population,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 1748, No. 3, 1996, pp. 983-989. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(96)70337-X
 M. G. Bergerson, “Treatment of Pyelonephritis in Adults,” Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 75, 1995, pp. 619-649.
 B. Nowicki, “In Vitro Models for the Study of Uropathogens,” In: H. L.T. Mobley and J. W. Warren, Eds., Urinary Tract Infection: Molecular Pathogenesis to Clinical Management, ASM Press, Washington DC, 1996, pp. 3-29.
 D. M. Guyer, S. Radulovic, F.-E. Jones and H. L. T. Mobley, “Sat, the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Is a Vacoulating Cytotoxin for Bladder and Kidney Epithelial Cells,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 70, No. 8, 2002, pp. 4539-4546. doi:10.1128/IAI.70.8.4539-4546.2002
 C. J. Bennet, M. N. Young and H. Darrington, “Differences in Urinary Tract Infection in Male and Female Spinal Cord Injury Patients on Intermittent Catheterisation,” Paraplegia, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995, pp. 69-72. doi:10.1038/sc.1995.17
 X. Li, H. Zhao, C. V. Lockatell, C. B. Drachenberg, D. E. Johnson and H. L. T. Mobley, “Visualization of Proteus mirabilis within the Matrix of Urease-Induced Bladder Stones during Experimental Urinary Tract Infections,” Infection and Immunity, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2000, pp. 389-394. doi:10.1128/IAI.70.1.389-394.2002
 L. Hillebrand, O. H. Harmanli, V. Whiteman and M. Khandelwal, “Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women with Bacterial Vaginosis,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 186, No. 5, 2002, pp. 916-917. doi:10.1067/mob.2002.123987
 G. Kahlmeter, “The ECO-SENS Project: A Prospective Multinational Multicenter Epidemiological Survey of the Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Pathogens,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 46, Suppl. 1, 2000, pp. 15-22. doi:10.1093/jac/46.suppl_1.15
 J. W. Warren, “Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection,” In: G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett and R. Dolin, Eds., Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease, Churchill Living-stone, philidelphia, 2000, pp. 3028-3039.
 S. Kramery, J. Hromec and D. Demesova, “Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2001, pp. 279-282. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00351-4
 J. Beckford-Ball, “Related Articles, Management of Suspected Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection,” Nursing Times, Vol. 102, No. 32, 2006, pp. 25-26.
 E. Giron, C. Rioux, C. Brun-Buisson and B. Lobel, “Infection Committee of the French Association of Urology. The Postoperative Bacteriuria Score: A New Way to Predict Nosocomial Infection after Prostate Surgery,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2006, pp. 847-854. doi:10.1086/506398
 M. Cheesbrough, “Medical Laboratories Manual for Tropical Countries,” Butterworth-Heinemann, Cambridge, 2002.
 M. Cheesbrough, “District Laboratories Manual for Tropical Countries,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.
 E. H. Kass, “Pyelonephritis and Bacteriuria. Major Problem in Preventative Medicine,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1962, 46-53. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-56-1-46
 A. W. Asscher, M. Sussman, W. E. Waters, R. H. Davis and S. Chick, “Urine as a Medium for Bacterial Growth,” The Lancet, Vol. 288, No. 7472, 1966, pp. 1037-1041. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(66)92023-X
 I. R. McFadyen, M. Campell-Brown, M. Stephenson and D. V. Seal, “Single-Dose Treatment of Bacteriuria in Pregnancy,” European Urology, Vol. 13, Suppl. 1, 1987, pp. 22-25.
 I. O. Okonko, L. A. Ijandipe, O. A. Ilusanya, et al., “Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 8, No. 23, 2009, pp. 6649-6657.
 A. M. Al-Haddad, “Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women in Al-Mukalla District, Yemen,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 505-510.
 A. K. Onifade, F. O. Omoya and D. V. Adegunloye, “Incidence and Control of Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women Attending Antennal Clinics in Government Hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria,” Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2005, pp. 37-38.
 B. Jellheden, R. S. Norrby and T. Sandberg, “Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection in Women in Primary Health Care: Bacteriological, Clinical and Diagnostic Aspect in Relation to Host Response to Infection. (Comment),” Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996, pp. 122-128. doi:10.3109/02813439608997082
 M. Akram, M. Shahid and A. U. Khan, “Aetiology and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in JNMC Hospital Aligarh, India,” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Vol. 6, 2007, pp. 4-10. doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-4
 E. Mahesh, D. Ramesh, V. A. Indumathi et al., “Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Tertiary Care Center in South India,” Al Ameen Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010, pp. 120-127.
 C. Yengkokpam, D. Ingudam, et al., “Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Urinary Isolates in Imphal (Manipur), India,” Nepal Medical College Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007, pp. 170-172.
 D. Sahm, C. Thomsbery, D. Mayfield, M. Jones and J. Karlowsky, “Multidrug Resistant Urinary Tract Isolates of Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Patient demographic in the United States in 2000,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 45, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1402-1406. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.5.1402-1406.2001
 E. E. A. Okonofua and B. N. Okonofua, “Incidence and Pattern of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria of Pregnancy in Nigerian Women,” The Nigerian Medical Practitioner, Vol. 17, 1989, pp. 354-358.
 P. I. Nwanze, L. M. Nwaru, S. Oranusi, U. Dimkpa, M. U. Okwu, B. B. Babatunde, A. Anake, W. Jatto and C. E. Asagwara, “Urinary Tract Infection in Okada Village: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern,” Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2007, pp. 112-116.
 P. K. Chhetri, S. K. Rai, U. N. Pathak, et al., “Retrospective Study of Urinary Tract Infection at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu,” Nepal Medical College Journal, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 83-85.
 C. K. Rai, B. M. Pokhrel and A. P. Sharma, “A Prospective Study of Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of the Organisms Associated with Clinical Infections among the Patients Attending TU Teaching Hospital,” Journal of Nepal Association for Medical Laboratory Sciences, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 13-16.
 Y. Kumamoto, T. Tsukomoto, T. Hirose, et al., ”Comparative Studies on Activities of Antimicrobial Agents against Causative Organisms Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections,” The Journal of Antibiotics, Vol. 51, No. 2, 1998, pp. 112-129.
 N. Kumari, G. Ghirmire, J. K. Magar, T. M. Mohapatra and A. Rai, “Antibiogram Pattern of Isolates from UTI Cases in Eastern Part of Nepal,” Nepal Medical College Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2005, pp. 116-118.
 M. Vromen, A. J. Vandervan, A. Knols and E. E. Sttobberingh, “Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Urinary Isolates from Nursing Home Residents. Fifteen Years of Data Reviewed,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1999, pp. 113-116. doi:10.1093/jac/44.1.113
 J. K. Bajaj, R. P. Karyokarte, J. D. Kulkarni and A. B. Deshmukh, “Changing Aetiology of Urinary Tract Infections and Emergence of Drugs Resistance as a Major Problem,” The Journals on Communicable Diseases, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1999, pp. 181-184.
 T. M. Hooton, “Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women,” Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2001, pp. 259-268. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00350-2
 V. Skerk, et al., “Antimicrobial Therapy of Urinary Tract Infection,” Lejecnicki Vjesnik, Vol. 123, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 16-25.
 D. R. Laurence, P. N. Bennett and M. J. Brown, “Clinical Pharmacology,” 8th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg, 1997.