NS  Vol.5 No.10 , October 2013
Developmental stages and quality traits of giant African land snails [Archachatina marginata (swainson)] eggs
Abstract: Sixty sexually mature purebred black-skinned Archachatina marginata snails with weight ranging from 120.50 g to 135.70 g were used to generate eggs in this study. The eggs collected were incubated in a chamber filled with loamy soil for appropriate observation and assessment (cracking at four days intervals to check snailet’s development). Results obtained from the study showed that at laying snail egg weights ranged from 1.54 - 2.45 g (mean of 2.00 g). The egg lengths and widths ranged from 13.50 - 16.90 mm (mean of 15.20 mm) and 10.00 - 12.70 mm (mean of 11.40 mm) respectively. The results also revealed that at laying (day one) the egg content was translucent or clear (blank) when observed with light from a powered microscope. Observation of eggs on day four showed the formation of embryo with a semi-transparent cup attached to a long string body. On day 12, some specific organs of the snailet had developed, and there was a reduction in the liquid content. On day 28, the snailet was fully formed, but the shell still contained very small volume of liquid. The snailet hatched on day 29.
Cite this paper: Okon, B. , Ibom, L. , Ebenso, I. and Bassey, A. (2013) Developmental stages and quality traits of giant African land snails [Archachatina marginata (swainson)] eggs. Natural Science, 5, 1121-1126. doi: 10.4236/ns.2013.510137.

[1]   CAB (2003) Crop protection compendium: Global module. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International, Wallingford.

[2]   Venette, R.C. and Larson, M. (2004) Mini risk assessment giant Africant snail, Achatinafulica (Bowdich) [Gastropoda: Achatinidae]. Department of Entomology, University of Minnesita, St. Paul, 1-30.

[3]   Omole, A.J., Twaiwo, A.A. and Amusan, J.A. (2007) Technical guide/bulletin. Practical snail farming. Ibadan, Nigeria. Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, 26.

[4]   Ebenso, I.E. (2003) Nutritive potential of white snail (Archachatinamarginata) in Nigeria. Discovery Innovation, 15, 156-158.

[5]   Okon, B., Ibom, L.A., Etuk, N.E. and Akpan, E.W. (2008) Variations in growth patterns and conformation of snail. Influence of strain and location on isometry of growth in Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences (JOAFSS), 6, 218-226.

[6]   Akinnusi, O. (2004) Introduction to snails and snail farming. 2nd Edition, Abeokuta, Nigeria, Triolas Exquisite Ventures, 90.

[7]   Okon, B. and Ibom, L.A. (2012) Snail breeding and snailery management. Freshdew Productions, Calabar, 1-70.

[8]   Omole, A.J. and Kehinde, A.S. (2005) Backyard snail farming at a glance. Back to Agricultural Series (1) Ibadan Technovisor Agricultural Publications.

[9]   Ibom, L.A. (2009) Variations in reproductive and growth performance trait of white-skinned x black-skinned African giant snail hatchlings [Archachatinamarginata (Swainson)] in Obubra, Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, 166.

[10]   Ibom, L.A., Okon, B. and Essien, A. (2008) Morphometric analysis of eggs laid by two ectotypes of snails Archachatinamarganata (Swainson) raised in captivity. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7, 119-121.

[11]   Akinnusi, O. (1999) Introduction to snails and snail farming. Triolas Exquisite Ventures, Abeokuta.

[12]   Ogogo, A.U. (2004) Wildlife management in Nigeria. Objectives, principles and procedures. Median Communications, Calabar, 134-154.

[13]   Raut, S.K. and Barker, G.M. (2002) Achatina fulica Bondich and other Achatinidae as pests in tropical agriculture. In: Barker G.M., Ed., Molluscs as Crop Pests, CABI Publishing, Hamilton, 55-114.

[14]   Bhramachery, A. (1992) Embryonic development of snail.

[15]   Morril, J.B. (1982) Development of Pulmonate Gastropod, Lymnaea. In: Harrison, F.W. and Cowden, R.R., Eds., Developmental Biology of Fresh Water Invertebratesliss, Mc Grad Hill, New York, 399-483.

[16]   Pressing, M. (1993) Influence of an insecticide K-othrine on the reproduction and mortality of the pond snail (Lymnaeastagnalis L.). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 25, 387-393.

[17]   Herman, P.M., Meat, A. and Jansen, R.F. (1994) The neutral control of egg laying in the pond snail. Lymnaeastagnalis, mito control of shell turning. Journal of Experimental Biology, 197, 79-99.

[18]   Roudeland, D. and Dreyfuss, G. (1996) The development of tissue lesions in the snail Lymnaea glabra exposed to a sublethal dose of molluscide. Verterinary Research, 27, 79-86.

[19]   Udosen, C. (2000) Application of remote sensing and GIS techniques in terrain mapping and watershed management. In: Yang, S., Ed., South-Eastern Nigeria: It’s Environment, Abaam Publishing, Uyo, 23-28.

[20]   Ebenso, I., Ekwere, A., Akpan, B., Okon, B., Inyang, U. and Ebenso, G. (2012) Occurrence of Salmonella, Vibro and E. coli in edible land snail in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 2, 610-618.

[21]   Ibom, L.A., Okon, B. and Bassey, B.E.E. (2012) Egg traits, hatchability and survivability of black-skinned, white skinned and crossbred Archachatina marginata snails. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Bioresource Engineering Research, 1, 10-18.

[22]   Md. Moniruzzanam, S., Badrun, N. and Md. Sarwar, J. (2007) Embryonic development ecology of fresh water snail Lymnaeae acuminate (Lymnaidae: Gastropoda) Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 23-31.

[23]   Demian, E.S. and Yousif, F. (1975) Embryonic development and organogenesis in the snail Marisa cornuaristic (Mesogastropoda anpullaridae). Malacologia, 15, 29-42.

[24]   Cobbinah, J.R. (1993) Snail farming in West Africa. A practical guide. Sayee Publication, CTA Publication.

[25]   Stievenant, C. (1996) Shell morphology, growth reproduction and aestivation by African snails. Laboratory observations on Archachatina marginata Saturalis, Achatinaachatina and Achatinafulica. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 206.

[26]   Awesu, M.O. (1980) The biology and management of the African giant land snail (A. marginata). M. Phil. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

[27]   Tracy, C.R., Packard, G.C. and Packard, M.J. (1978) Water relations of chelonian eggs. Physiological Zoology, 51, 378-387.